1.1 Background to the Study
In the year 1962 at Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria, a brewery company was incorporated named Guinness (Nigeria) Plc. The Benin branch which is the case study was established in mid 1972 as at the time of incorporation, it was called Guinness (Nigeria) Ltd.
It was changed to Guinness Nigeria Plc in the year 1991 due to government directive to distinguish public limited companies from other limited companies. Guinness (Nigeria) Plc, Benin branch is located along the Benin Agbor road, at Oregbeni Housing Estate, Ikpoba Hill in Ikpobookha Local Government Area, Edo State.
The objectives of the company (Guinness Nigeria Plc) include amongst others:
1. To contribute to the economic development of the nation.
2. To contribute to the general welfare of the community, where it is situated.
3. To provide or create employment opportunities to members of the entire community.
As a result of the recent structural re-organization of the company, the total number of full time staff of the company is 2250. Moreover, about 250 casual workers are employed on daily pay basis. However only 106 people are in the management cadre. It is noteworthy to understand that expatriated workers do come from time to time to the company to offer technical and other managerial advice particularly when a new product is to be introduced into the market. The board of directors is made up of sixteen (16) members.
1.2 Statement of Problems
The following are the problems faced in the preparation of budgeting.
1. The preparation of budgeting is very expensive and time consuming.
2. It tends to be frustrating when a manager is unable to meet the level of performance expected.
3. The budget holder tends to be rigid with supervision of subordinates so as to be able to meet with the budget expectations.
4. Budget Preparation: This normally begins with the forecast of sales and production. The resources required for production such as labour, materials and expenses would be forecast so that the cost of manufacture or production cost might be established. We could then budget for administration, selling and distribution overhead where applicable. Often it is necessary to establish the per unit cost of the production and the entire budget can thus be prepared.
Moreover, in per unit cost, distribution must be made between fixed and variable cost. It must be known that fixed and variable costs are expressed in total but not in per unit cost for the purpose of budgeting.
1.3 Research Questions
1. Who are the users of budgeting?
2. What is the difference between budgeting and budgetary control?
3. What do government or public sector need budgeting for?
4. What distinguishes plan from budgeting?
5. What is a principal budget factor and why is it important in planning?
6. What do you understand by bias in budgeting?
7. How may we deal with budget slack?
8. What are the limitation of budget?
9. What is the difference between standard costing and budgetary control?
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The purpose of this research work is to examine how budgeting and budgetary has been used as an effective tool for organizational planning and control in Guinness Nigeria Plc.
Moreover, it will highlight among others the budgeting and budgetary control process and also to make research into budget implementation in Guinness Nigeria Plc.
Objectives of Budget
i. An aid to control revenue.
ii. To prevent waste.
iii. To review the economy generally.
iv. To give estimate both revenues and expenditures arranged in recurrent and capital groupings.
v. To conform with good business practice by planning for the future.
vi. To coordinate the various divisions of the economy such as production, marketing, financial and administrative divisions.
Objectives of Budgetary Control
i. To smooth out sensational variations.
ii. To centralize management control.
iii. To indicate where action is needed.
iv. To provide a method of measurement.
v. To obtain a more economical use of funds.
1.5 Statement of Hypotheses
Research Hypothesis: In order to provide researchers towards effective conduct of investigation, the following tentative statement are made as the cause of the problem faced by budgeting department.
The budget department of the Brewery will be ineffective where management restricts budgeting activities.
The inadequacy of business experience and general educational background under the achievement of the service objective affects budgeting.
The apathy or influence of management in budget department, findings and recommendation affects the performance of budget department.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be useful to the company by a detached critical and practical view of the area, in which the company needed useful information concerning making of its product, this would be of benefit to the management of the company by providing the theoretical and practical framework from which useful and quality decision for future plans on matters affecting the company’s business operations can be taken.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will be limited in scope to Guinness Nigeria Plc, Benin City. However, it will extend to all the departments division and units within the organization to the extent of their involvement in the budgeting and budgetary control of the organization.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
Generally, the increase in cost of transportation restricted the number of trips that could have been made to the case study.
Moreover, much money is also spent in purchasing stationary and materials for the production of this project. Apart from that, there are other issues like:
1. Time: There is also time constraint, this project is handled along side with numerous class exercises. That notwithstanding, the period of time expected to complete and submit the project is too short.
2. Distance: The problem of distance is another factor of limitation. The case study is situated at Benin City, kilometers away from Auchi, where the school is situated, the information (data) and other documents to be used in making the project work among others.
In spite of these constraints, the research have to remark that the study has a good degree of validity.
1.9 Definition of Terms
i. Budget: A budget is a plan quantified in monetary terms prepared and approved, prior to a defined period of time usually one year showing planned expenditure; to be incurred during that period and the capital to be employed to attain a given objective (ICMA).
ii. Call Circular: This is a notice issued by the budget department to every department, unit, containing detained information and guide line to be followed by the units, departments in the preparation and submission of their budgets.
iii. Budget Centre: This is a section of an organization for which separate budget can be prepared and control exercised. It is a functional location such as a section or department which exists for the attainment of the organizations objectives and in respect of which a budget is prepared.
iv. Budget Officer: The budget officer is the management accountant because of the requirement of accounting skills of the budget, he plays a very important role in budget administration. He provides technical and unbiased help to budgeters and take overall responsibilities for the budget programme. He is also in charge of establishing preparatory procedures, designs relevant forms, educates others, collects and coordinate data, verifies information received and compiles the budget.
v. Budget Holder: This is the head of such section, division or department; (Budget Centre).
vi. Budget Committee: This is a body that administers the budgeting process, it is usually comprise of members drawn from the top management of all divisions in the organization. The committee develops and scrutinized long terms plans, offers advice on the budget, reconciles divergent views, coordinates the budgeting activities and sets the budget time table.
vii. Budget Time Table: This is a plan of the timing process of the budget from the moment of objective setting-up to the adoption and communication of the budget. It ensures that the budgeting process does not lag behind time as it states when each activity will begin and when it should end.
viii. Budget Manual: This present instruction and pertinent information about the budget and its preparation. It serves as a rule and reference book for the preparation and implementation of budget programme.
ix. Budget Period: This is the time for which a budget is prepared and used (ICMA).
x. Budget Administration: This involved the management of the budgeting process from the time of preparation to implementation.
xi. Budgeting: This is a process of drawing up a budget that aid managers in coordinating their effort so that objective of the organizations as a whole harmonized with the objective of the parts.
xii. Budgetary Control: This is an exact and rigorous analysis of the past and the probable and desired future experience with a view to substituting considered intention for opportunism in management. (Akinyoade, S. O.) broadly speaking, it can be said that budget is concerned with policy making while budgetary control result from implementation of the policy.
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