1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In any society, it is not easy to find any skill work that does not require reading ability. Reading is an important pre-occupation of students from the lowest level to the highest level of education. Reading is a tool for understanding all subjects in every course of study in our schools. Terry Thomas (1967) saw reading as the interpretation of printed or written symbols into speech, reading is the ability to interpret printed materials from page.
It is a decoding process by which written words are translated in order to gain meaning. Reading helps to gain experience through which an individual may expand understanding of him, or herself and others. According to Conge (1929), reading is a specialized and complex skill involving a number of more general or lesser skill, it is also the ability to carryout the patterned shaped unit mark on paper with language. Reading cannot take place without language or at least the capacity for language certain special cases reading is a difficult a train all over the world particularly with the second use of language.
Reading is one of the four basic skills which combine to form what is generally called a complex system of element and symbols through which we communicate and interact with other people. Reading has shown to be an essential skill for facilitating a multitude of day to day task and promoting an easily accessible means for creation to today’s society.
According to Buzan (1987) learned man all over the world have realized that without efficiency in reading acquire and application of knowledge of skills can hardly be practiced, the subject of poor reading habits and its effect, it a matter of great interest of the researcher and concern to teachers education and administration. As a result there is a consensus among the general public that the standard of English has fallen. There are two main types of reading, the silent reading and the loud reading in the silent reading, the reader reads without movement of the lips and without the movement of the head side to side. All information gathering are conceived in the readers mind. In loud reading, the reader reads out words for others to hear minding all the necessary punctuations.
It has however been observed that many students especially those in the junior secondary seldom read effectively, sometimes many of the students are held back in their study by slow reading speed. Some read more quickly to themselves than they do aloud. The focal point of this study lies basically on the factors that are responsible for poor reading habits among junior secondary school students and the effect it has on their reading ability.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
From earlier time to present, there have been different causes of poor reading habits among junior secondary school students. The nature of reading ability is very complex from observation, one could risk the generalization that most student do not know how to read and as a result they are faced with reading problems especially during examination periods. The researcher discovered that during her teaching practice that many of the students were not able to read their textbooks properly and the notes given to them in the various subject and even the question papers of their examination. As a result of this poor reading habit they failed woefully in their examinations if the questions were not read to them. This reasons prompted my choosing this topic, causes and effect of poor reading habit among junior secondary school students.
Reading skill has over the years been a difficult and demanding task, it is important to note that there are many complex problems that many result in poor reading habit among students. It could be school attended by students, the environment he or she reads and the physiological factors. Some students tends to read poorly because of their inability to discover their reading problems, I elementary schools for example, children are taught to read by look and say method. The method results in excessive occupation with words and their sound and there is therefore lack of silent reading. Lack of good motivation by parents and teachers also affects the student ability to read. Bad method of teaching which has result from unqualified teachers can actually develop into undesirable habits in reading. It is therefore necessary to find out from student and teachers those problems they encounter during the course of reading.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY
The objective of this study is geared towards surveying and identifying the causes and effects of poor reading habits among junior secondary school in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, despite the fact that some teachers tend to be good in encouraging their students to read.
This study also tend to highlight systematically the factors that are responsible for poor reading habit among junior secondary schools and teachers in schools, reading and their roles in fashioning the reading habit of students who pass through them. This study is lastly, targeted towards making useful suggestions that will help in the improvement of reading among junior secondary school students.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To facilitate the achievement of this study, the following research questions will be treated.
- Does lack of teaching aids in secondary schools give room to poor reading habits?
- Does physical and mental defects lead to poor reading habits?
- Does poor reading habit among students result to performance in the examination?
- Does low intelligence affect efficiency in reading?
- Does bad teaching methods used by teachers causes poor reading habits among students?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The importance of this study cannot be over emphasized. This study is highly important because the result will be useful in changing the reading habits of junior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. T he study will be beneficial to teachers beause it will serve as a guide to the teachers and also the students and their society at large to develop and update themselves with the new method of teaching and reading so as to avoid the out-dated methods which will yield no positive result. This study is important to the society because it will enhance the standard of education as students will be equipped with a “master key” to unlock the doors that lead to learning and enlightenment. It will also accelerate the interest of parents in their children’s education. To the researcher, this study will help to know the problems that are hampering effective reading and also it will help to get first hand information on the causes and effect of poor reading habit among junior secondary school students.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF STUDY
This scope is based on the causes and effect of poor reading habits among junior secondary school students in Ikpoba Okha Local Government Area of Edo State. The study will be limited to cover some selected secondary school in Ikpoba Okha Local Government which are:
1. Uwelu College
2. Niger College
3. St. Maria Goretti Girls Grammar School
4. Egba Grammar School
5. Idogbo Grammar School.
This research work which is the causes and effects of poor reading habit among junior secondary school students in IKpoba Okha Local Government Area would have been of more importance, if the research work had covered all the junior secondary schools in the local government. But as a result of time constraint, the research work was limited to five secondary schools were the facts concerning, the problems of poor reading habits were collected. The research work also ran concurrently with the researcher’s academic work which made it impossible for the researcher to explore sources which would have immensely contributed to the depth of knowledge than the study entails.
1.7 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
Causes: That which produces an effect a person or thing that makes something happen.
Effect: A change, produced by an action or a cause.
Poor: Having something only in a very small quantities.
Reading: The act of been able to interpret or understand something written or printed.
Habit: A thing that a person does often and almost without thinking, especially something that is hard to stop doing.
Retardation: To check or hinder progress or development.
Slacken: A process of making reading gradually become slower,m weaker or less active in the process of reading.
Hanger: A process of being restricted, of movement activities or achievement of something by causing difficulties.
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