1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Computer has been defined as electronic machine that accept data (input) processes it to produce useful result (output). It is also capable of storing information. It uses predefined instruction known as computer programs to execute the task in order to produce output. Computers technology has helped in no small measure in activating the problems encountered using the manual tools and machines. Computerization ranks prominently in the commanding heights of economic activities of the business world. Through computerization, industries have been able to control their cost of production heading to high profit margin, sustainable growth and development, accurate and lasting records.
The manufacturing industry has come a long way from the manual era of machine operation to modern day science and technology. Within this period, a number of major changes took place in the
business world with significant positive impact on the business world. Notable among these changes are those changes in manipulation of accounting records, fantastic computer designs etc.
We have various types and categories of computers which perform diverse functions; however, the one of interest and relevance to this research is the digital type of computer.
The history of the digital computer data back to the Abacus which was intended in China more than a thousand years ago and used to add, subtract, multiply and divided . This was followed by the counting invented by John Napier in the 1600’s. Blaise Pascal followed closely with a mechanical machine that could do similar jobs more efficiently. GOH friend Von Liebritz invented a more improved version of Pascal’s machine. Other great mathematicians and investors like Jacuard, Babbage, Grace Hopper etc made greater strides towards, building calculating machines. An American Herman Hoterrith, developed the mechanical members calculator which was used to read punched cards and greatly facilitated the sun of 1890 in that country. Hoterrith founded a company to sell his inventions and
today that company has grown to become IBM which is (international Business machines) the largest computer company in the world.
The era of modern computers began sometime in the period preceding the end of the Second World War when the vast calculations required in the production of the first bomb necessitated he buildings of a giant computer which operated on vacuum tubes. This computer was huge and expensive and only affordable by few.
Thus, from this period on wards, with the introduction of new technologies, computer became smaller in size and cheap as well: such that today we have the micro computer which costs a few thousand naira and can do job undreamed of forty years back.
There are three classes of computers now in use viz;
1. The micro – computers
2. The mini- computers
3. The mainframe computers
i. MICRO – COMPUTERS: These computers are designed to handle simple data processing functions; it is the smallest general
purpose computer. Micro computers are capable of handling independent task and do not led themselves to integrated network. Some just j contain a keyboard for input entire, where data is keyed in by an operator of programmes. Others can contain sophisticated input/output forms. Micro computers and their speed are designed to be stand alone computer, which means that they operate independently, on they can be part of a network or system. Their memory is smellier than that of mainframe or mini computers and their speed of processing data is slower also.
ii. A mini computer – is a small computer relative to mainframe and maybe be defined as a seated down mainframe, as the processor and peripherals are physically smaller. Although the processor may be physically smaller, it is powerful than the micro computers; several people can make use of the mini computer to do different jobs simultaneously through a linkage channel called the work-stations or terminals. It can be used to in inventory control, customers account records and employees payroll. It canalso be used to prepare final accounts of companies using
computerized accounting system.
iii. The mainframe computer is large and powerful. They have higher processing speed and capability than both mini and micro computers. These are used by large organization with immense data processing deeds. Computers can be used in several fields as widely diverse as law, medicine and architecture. However, the principal concern within the scope of this research work is a data processing and analysis for business organization.
In the past thirty year or so, there has been a tremendous advance in technology of automation. The introduction and adaptation of the computer to business has led to revolutionary changes in data processing methods in advanced countries.
These changes are fast spreading to the developing world. In present day Nigeria, there is a noticeable and marked trend towards computerization of computers, often with little or no back-up capability often with little or no hack-up capability as guards’ maintenance and utilization.
Companies are begin attracted to this computerization possibly with the belief that it is sound business to sight coupled with the feeling that it is in vogue for a company to say it is fully computerized.
In answering the question why any organization should consider the transition to computerized accounting system Larry J. Campbel (1979) observes that research by behavioral scientists reveal that he fundamental reasons for transferring to some form of mechanization in information systems are the same as any other tact of an enterprise. Companies turn to mechanization because.
1. Company growth exceeds the capability to expand the present processes by any other reasonable scheme.
2. Technology changes, force different and more computer tactics that can best me mechanized.
3. Efforts to cut costs force searches for alternative. Added it all these is the requirement of data for decision making at a faster speed to meet up with competition.
1.2 STATEMENTS OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of this study includes:
1. The problem of industrial unrest
2. The problem of obsolesce or unsuitableness for the needs of the company.
3. The problems of companies not realize the full potentials of the computer system they have installed thereby leading to inefficiency.
4. The problem of company’s data processing operation which are amiable to automation may be over looked.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVE
1. To ascertain if the introduction of computer system may lead to industrial unrest as workers resists change.
2. To identify the wrong computer systems either in terms of obsolesce or unsuitableness for the need of the company.
3. To determine how companies can realize the full potentials of the computer systems installed thereby leading to efficiency.
4. To examine how companies data processing operation can be amenable to automation so that they cannot be over looked.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The followings are the research questions
Research questions help in obtaining adequate information within the preview of any chosen topic. Answers to questionnaire will help in the discussion of a research question, some of the research questions which will help to achieve the objective of the study Viz:
1. Is the turnover of workers higher now that you use computer system? Yes/no.
2. Is the high cost of procurement and installation yielding good returns? Yes/No.
3. Are your computers very expensive to maintain? Yes/No
4. If yes, what is the maintenance cost of your computers yearly?
5. Is the usage of computers advantageous to your company? Yes/No.
Can't find what you are looking for? Hire A Researchproject Writer To Work On Your Topic or Call 0806-703-7559.
Proceed to Hire a Writer »