1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It is rare these days to see adverts broadcast on television without women playing prominent and visible roles, such roles range from complementary, subjective, subordinate to major actors in most television adverts. These roles as may be ascribed by men, not only enhance the product advertised, but add colour, glamour and pleasant feelings to viewers whose interest, attention and patronage are very much sought after. Thus, women could see oftentimes in the back grand performing seductive roles in advertising. The sole attraction and the major actors were the women shown at the pitch where the glamour was most manifest. Although, there were men there, but women was first of their sole attraction. Women are, therefore, beginning to get involved in adverts not only as subordinates but also as major characters and most times found themselves in decision-making positions. The term advertising and advertisement can be defined in many different ways. One widely used definition appropriate for many years by no longer so was simply “salesmanship print”. Perhaps a more precise definition of the subject would be: Advertising, the paid use of any channel of communication to identify, explains or urges the use of adoption of a product, service or idea. An identified sponsor could also define it as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services. Although, modern advertising is only about 100 years old, the use of advertising actually dates back at least to the 10th century BC. The use of picture in advertisements is necessary. Advertisements with names and symbols on them are always easy for both illiterates and literates to identify. With the developing of printing, advertising made its first appearance in a form more nearly related to its present one. A small poster by William Claxton promoted the sale of a service book published in 1450. The first known newspaper advertisement also was a book notice, which appeared in a German News book in 1591. It is of note that the common forms of advertising at that time were newspaper, street signs, posters, hand bills. The use was made of by United States government of advertisement during the civil war to sell bonds. The radio made its incursion into the advertisement world and began to challenge, seriously, newspapers and others. Television became very controversial because it changed the role of radio, as it became the major source of in-home entertainments since the 1950’s.The scientific nature of advertising perhaps has created a broad and wide room which impropriated the women folk, and exploitation of their intricate characters and quality. Women traditionally are seen in terms of their appearance, sexually and domestic relations Accordingly, feminist researchers like inch man et al and Busty, conclusively submit that women tend to be shown as submissive, passive and are portrayed largely in term of their sexuality or domestic city, while men tend to be shown as dominant, active and authoritative. This perhaps explains to a great extent why the role-played by women carrier on were mere sub ordinate to men. As it has been the practice until perhaps to recent times, the males take major decisions, handle senior executive parts, think and map out strategies for execution plan on a complementary basis. Nowadays, the impact of women in advertisements has generated a lot of controversy in many parts of the world. Some argue that women are used as followers in the advertisements. They see women as ornaments that are used to beautify the advertisement. They further went to say that women garnish the advertisements and make the adverts appealing to the eyes. To them the seductive nature of women helps a lot in creating interest in the product. Perhaps, this accounts for why must advert agencies see or feel the impact of women in advertisements as a powerful polarized force of feminine attraction over masculine, a phenomenon well cherished for quick awareness of advert and sale of product. The argument here reveals a situation of attraction and sustenance as a major factor in any advertisement. These agencies use renowned women, since men and even women alike admire television advertised. There are advanced examples as that of monarch beer and cannon beer, which use women widely despite the fact that men actually consume the product more that the females. Also product adverts like Delta soap, Joy soap etc call to mind what effects womanish roles on advertisements can play on the audience. The influence of women image in advertisements and indeed other endeavours are perceived differently, from community to community and according to position of women in the traditional society to which they belong. In a country like Greece, women basically occupy themselves with domestic chores, and keeping the family religiously alive, while their male counterparts have the duly of providing things from the outside world that deep the family alive and going. In Germany, women play tougher role: they go to hunt with their male flock, go to war most times with them, farm and prepare the food for the husband and the family. Women here are often times treated same as men, though both do not enjoy equal rights and privilege especially in inheritance. The American situation may perhaps be a little different; women were initially subjected to ascribed roles. This gradually began to wane as women liberation movements became rampart and the roles of women in such places became more recognized and appreciated. To African and Nigerian society, women should remain in their traditional position and remain in the background, unseen and unheard. The African society perceives exposure of women as a most unwelcome thing. In certain parts of African traditional society, exposing of a female’s body is termed a taboo, just like the Muslim community forbid women from exposing themselves to certain practices which they term evil and ungodly. Thus, it is not only in advertising by in other fields of endeavour where pronounced roles are seen at not for women. But in modern times, women are beginning to be exposed and can now engage in activities without much criticism. Perhaps, advertisements are now so negligently perused that it has become necessary to gain eloquence and glamour or for some other reasons, sometimes sublime, and sometimes pathetic, that women play these controversial roles in virtually every advertisement broadcast. This research venture is aimed at not only x-raying the influence of women image in adverts but in everyday endeavour both in modern and ancient times, outlining reasons and explanations and aligning such roles and activities of women in various parts of the globe. The fields survey research method, which was adopted for this research was deemed appropriate considering the nature of the topic. There was the need to interview men, women and other members of the society on matters relevant to study
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Nowadays, the impact of women in advertisements has generated a lot of controversy in many parts of the world. Some argue that women are used as followers in the advertisements. They see women as ornaments that are used to beautify the advertisement. They further went to say that women garnish the advertisements and make the adverts appealing to the eyes. To them the seductive nature of women helps a lot in creating interest in the product. Perhaps, this accounts for why must advert agencies see or feel the impact of women in advertisements as a powerful polarized force of feminine attraction over masculine, a phenomenon well cherished for quick awareness of advert and sale of product. It is in view of this that the researcher intends to investigate the influence of women image in products and services advertisement campaigns.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the influence of women image in products and services advertisement campaigns, but for the successful completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objective;
i) To ascertain the influence of women image in products and services advertisement campaigns
ii) To investigate the role of women on the acceptability of product advertised on TV
iii) To investigate the effect of feminism on television advertisement
iv) To proffer some possible solution to the identified problem
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher
H0: Women image has no significant impact on television advertisement
H1: Women image has a significant impact on television advertisement
H0: Feminism does not play any significant role on the acceptability of product advertised on TV
H1: Feminism plays a significant role on the acceptability of product advertised on TV.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to the marketing profession as the study seek to explore the impact of feminism in influencing the choice of the consumer, the study will also be of great importance to all marketers as the study seek to enumerate the importance of advertising on the marketing profession and the role of women. , The study will also be of importance to researchers who intend to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to the researcher.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study covers the impact of women in advertisement with emphasis on TV advert in Delta state. In the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope;
(a) Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b) Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c) Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Advertisement: Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, non-personal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services. Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message
Women: A woman is a female human and may also refer to a person's gender identity. The term woman is usually reserved for an adult, with the term girl being the usual term for female child or adolescent. The term woman is also sometimes used to identify a female human, regardless of age, as in phrases such as "women's rights". Women with typical genetic development are usually capable of giving birth from puberty until menopause
Marketing: Marketing is a form of communication between you and your customers with the goal of selling your product or service to them. Communicating the value of your product or service is a key aspect of marketing.
1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance or the study, research methodology, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlight the theoretical framework on which the study its based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
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