1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The national policy on Education (1985) in Nigeria has accords agricultural education as a vocational course which provides skill development for self-reliance, productivity, sustainability and survival for individual. Entrepreneurial agricultural education therefore serves as a basis for the development of manpower and technological abilities to meet the target of socio-economic development of the individual and the nation to ensure high level of productivity, sustainability and affordability in human endeavour. One of the reasons for high demand for entrepreneurial agricultural education is to develop and promote skill abilities in scientific and technological arena to the standard required for socioeconomic advancement of individual and the Nation which is highly dependent on entrepreneurship. Advance Learner Dictionary (1974) defined entrepreneur as a person or group of persons who organize, coordinate and manage a commercial undertaking. Tawish (1981) concluded that entrepreneur is a person or a group of persons who decide and combine other factors of production to produce or render services which has been decided upon being the risk bearer. In the same vain Meredith et al (1987) described entrepreneurship as an action oriented which makes the person or group of persons highly motivated and is/are ready to undertake risk in order to achieve the desired objectives. Entrepreneurship inherits self confidence, determination, encouragement; task result oriented and risk bearing. In business management perspective an entrepreneur is a person who is knowledgeable, skillful undertaking and is expected to make effective decision to combine other factors of production such as capital, land and labour to produce goods and services as well as to provides training for those who can work and carryout business activities to meet the desired objectives. Therefore the quality and quantity of products produced is highly dependent on the standard, techniques, instruments, and management applied with the view to obtain the best satisfaction. Linderstorm and Stephen in Nanchen and Bala (2009) opined that entrepreneurship is an ingredient in National Development. The recognition of Nigerian potentials as the largest economy in the West African sub-region has given the country a considerable endowment for strong growth yet Nigeria has achieved very little of these potentials because the efforts for planning and vision have not been sustained instead there is high economic stagnation, declining in the welfare, social instability and under development in both human and material resources. However, at present Nigeria is experiencing growth turn around making Nigeria to launch on the right direction for sustaining and rapid growth which is justified by ranking Nigeria among the eleven (11) countries identified to have the potentials for attaining global competitions based on their economic and democratic setting for reform. It is based on this fact that previous governments declared the intention to pursue the Entrepreneurial Agricultural Education and Contemporary Issues in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
Entrepreneurship skills and self reliance acquired through Agricultural entrepreneurial education has been recognized as an important aspect of organization and economies (Dickson et al, 2008). It contributes in an immeasurable ways toward creating new job, wealth creation, poverty reduction, and income generation for both government and individuals. Schumpeter in 1934 argued that Agricultural entrepreneurial education is very significant to the growth and development of economies. Having understood the vital role of Agricultural entrepreneurship in economic development, it becomes important that careful attention is needed to invest and promote Agricultural entrepreneurship. Meanwhile, education is seen as one of the precondition for Agricultural entrepreneurship development particularly in a place where the spirit and culture is very minimal. It is said to be an important determinant of selection into Agricultural entrepreneurship, formation of new venture and entrepreneurial success (Dickson, Solomon and Weaver, 2008). However, it equally assumes here that there is a positive relationship between Agricultural education and individual’s choice to become an entrepreneur as well as the result and outcome of his or her entrepreneurial activity. The move toward poverty reduction should not be considered and treated in isolation, different approach and strategies need to be employed. For any country to foster genuine economic growth and development, its education system must be considered as basis and essential ingredient. Agricultural Education is undisputedly considered as the bedrock of any meaningful emancipation and self reliance (FGN, 2004 in Akpomi 2009).
Adejimola and Olufunmilayo (2009) reported that about 80% of the graduates find it difficult to get employment every year. And at the same time much has not been done in trying to bring collaboration between the Agricultural entrepreneurs and the institutions. However, entrepreneurial Agricultural education can bridge the gap by equipping the undergraduate in becoming a successful Agricultural entrepreneur thereby reducing unemployment.
1.3 AIIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the influence of agricultural education for sustainable entrepreneurial skills and self reliance. other specific objectives of the study are
1. To examine the relationship between agricultural education and entrepreneurial skill development in Nigeria.
2. To examine the benefit of self reliance on the economy of Nigeria
3. To find out if agricultural entrepreneurial education has been a useful tool for reducing unemployment in Nigeria.
4. To ascertain if there is compulsory Agricultural entrepreneurial education for all students in Nigerian higher institutions
5. To recommend other ways of improving sustainable entrepreneurial skills and self reliance
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the relationship between agricultural education and entrepreneurial skill development in Nigeria?
2. What are the benefits of self reliance on the economy of Nigeria?
3. Does agricultural entrepreneurial education has been a useful tool for reducing unemployment in Nigeria?
4. Are there compulsory Agricultural entrepreneurial educations for all students in Nigerian higher institutions?
5. What are the other ways of improving sustainable entrepreneurial skills and self reliance?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant relationship between agricultural education and entrepreneurial skills development in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between agricultural education and entrepreneurial skills development in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this study brings to the fore the crucial need for agricultural entrepreneurial education in Nigeria, putting more consideration on the educational system, strategies and its eventual social developmental effect in the society.
The study highlights the problems of the level of agricultural education in the country and its equivalence to level of poverty in the society by virtue of lack of employment or knowledge of how to startup businesses; the resultant effect of which is a society that breeds healthy partnership and motivation, impacting on the development in the nation.
However, the contribution of this research work to knowledge identifies what is important to the economy, which is qualitative agricultural entrepreneurial education focused on the needs of the economy per time, rather than the resolution of the United Nations to increase budgetary details, increasing the people that go through school.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is the influence of agricultural education for sustainable entrepreneurial skills and self reliance using Benue state Zone A as a case study.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
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