1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Poultry are the common livestock investment a village household or people can make. Although the poverty stricken farmer still needs and calls for credit support common to manage and maintain this first stage of investment step out of poverty. Poultry keeping is conventionally known to be the duty of women in Akure, Ondo state, Nigeria and many other growing countries. Female-headed households stand in for 20 to 30 percent of all rural households in Nigeria, and women are known to be more disadvantaged when it comes to making choices or suggesting for income generation. In sub-Saharan Africa, it is recorded that 85 percent of all households are into poultry production, and women own up to 70 percent of the poultry.
For smallholder farmers in Nigeria and other growing countries, poultry production stands for one of the few chances for saving, investment and security against all manner of risk. In most of these countries, poultry farming accounts for approximately 90 percent of the total poultry production. In countries like Bangladesh for instance, family poultry represents more than 80 percent of the total poultry production, and 90 percent of the 18 million rural households are into poultry farming and production. Families that have no land in the country form 20 percent of the population and they reduce the quantity they would have reared to five and seven chickens per household. Family poultry produced meat and eggs both to Nigerians and other countries that are into poultry rearing and production. This can be estimated to contribute 20 to 30 percent of the total animal protein supply, and has taken the second place to milk products, which are often times imported from other countries. Correspondingly, in Nigeria, family poultry and poultry production represents roughly 94 percent of total poultry rearing, and records for closely four percent of the total estimated worth of the livestock resources in the country.
In some developing countries which Nigeria is not an exception, chickens are the most widespread and 70 percent of every rural family are into poultry production. It is, and it serves as a good source of income and food for the family. Through poultry production, a lot of families have survived, while a number have left and waved a bye to poverty and lack. The total chicken population in the country is estimated to be 56.5 million with native chicken representing 96.9%, hybrid chicken 0.54% and exotic breeds 2.56%. The most dominant chicken types reared in Niger are broilers, which different in body position, color, comb type and productivity. Howbeit, the economic contribution of the sector is not still equal to the large chicken numbers, which is as a result of presence of numerous productions, reproduction and infrastructural limitations.
The chicken production system in Nigeria and in most developing countries can be defined as not market oriented, low input, search for food to eat and traditional management system including the local breeds. The indigenous birds which can also be call the village birds are small or petit in body size and are low producers of meat and egg. The total chicken egg and meat production in Nigeria, specifically, Ondo state is roughly about 50,000 metric tonnes, respectively.
In accordance to the national system, the main proportion of chicken production (98%) in Amhara National Regional State (ANRS) is a traditional sector, which is at small holder level, from which almost the entire yearly meat and egg production is produced. In recent times, in the agricultural census study, the total chicken population of the area or sphere is roughly estimated to be 14.44 million, recording to 33.3% of the national chicken population, and kept for both eggs and meat production reasons. Irrespective of the large population and the significant part chicken play both to the livelihood of resource poor farmers and to the national economy at large, the present and up to date level of on-farm productivity in the smallholder production system is very low because of diverse reasons like biological, social, economic and institutional factors.
On the other hand, the modern poultry production system is very small in size and reduced or minimized to just the urban and peri-urban areas and adds less than 2% of eggs and meat production in the country. The most paramount suggested way forward to maximize the production and productivity of chicken is utilization of chicken production system which is modern, market oriented and compatible with the already existing situation of the farming system. For this reason, by reducing the production limitations through the use of selected and productive poultry breed and also development of the production system, it is possible to supply chicken products for the market demand over the household consumption.
1.2. STATEMENT OF THE GENERAL PROBLEM
The general present state of the economy has resulted in a lot of problems such as the geometric price increase of general commodities notably the increase in the prices of poultry products. the increase in the prices of poultry products has negatively affected the level of poultry production as poultry farmers produce less than what they should have produced which has regrettably led to hunger in the land and this does not augur well for socio economic growth and development and most especially for agricultural development in Nigeria.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the influence of increase in price on poultry production in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. To examine the benefit of effective poultry production in Nigeria.
2. To determine the impact of price increase on poultry production in Nigeria.
3. To examine the relationship between price increase and poultry production in Nigeria.
4. To assess the level of poultry production in Nigeria.
5. To assess the role of government in ensuring efficient pricing on poultry production in Nigeria.
6. To recommend ways of improving poultry production through adequate pricing in Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the benefit of effective poultry production in Nigeria?
2. What is the impact of price increase on poultry production in Nigeria?
3. What is the relationship between price increase and poultry production in Nigeria?
4. What is the level of poultry production in Nigeria?
5. What is the role of government in ensuring efficient pricing on poultry production in Nigeria?
6. What are the ways of improving poultry production through adequate pricing in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant relationship between increase in prices and poultry production in Nigeria.
H1: There is a significant relationship between increase in prices and poultry production in Nigeria.
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study would greatly benefit poultry farmers, the Nigerian governments at all levels and related stakeholders as it would unveil the influence of price increase on poultry production in Nigeria. The study would also be of immense importance to students, scholars and researchers who are interested in carrying out a further research on the subject matter.
1.7. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to the influence of price increase on poultry production. The study would make use of Akure metropolis in Ondo state as the case study.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8. DEFINITION OF TERMS
POULTRY PRODUCTION: Poultry production is an innovative and high technology sector producing mainly chicken meat and eggs.
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