During the period of oil boom, price of oil were high ad Nigeria, being an oil producing and exporting country, reaped benefits from this. However, it did not last for ever and also had disadvantageous effects on the country economy.
Due to the boom and many inappropriate policies introduced by government to guide the economy, distortion were introduced into the vulnerable to external stocks.
The oil boom of 1970’s brought fundamental changes in the patterns of the Nigeria economy.
First the oil boom resulted in heavy dependence of economy on crude petroleum export as the main sources of foreign exchange earnings and government revenue.
By 1980, and oil sector which accoutered for 22 percent o the gross domestic product (G.D.P) provided about 80 percent of government revenue and over 96 percent export earnings.
Secondly, the competitiveness of the agricultural sector in the international market was ended by the over valued naira exchange rate. People turned collar jobs in offices.
This resulted to low productivity in the agricultural sector, which became so acute that Nigerian became heavily dependent on imported goods and agro allied individual inputs.
At that time, it was almost unbelievable that product like rice grow in Nigeria because almost every used imported product in their homes.
Infact using “made in Nigeria” product at times was a sign of lack of exposure.
Exporter at that time, were compelled to surrender foreign exchange receipts to authorize dealers and because of the over valued Naira exchange rate, the official equivalent of the foreign exchange receipts often fell short of the cost of non oil exports.
However, the world oil market started to collapse in mid 1981 and with this collapse, the economic crisis which was quite fierce gripped the country, though its magnitude and duration could not easily be measured or appreciated a the time.
This collapse together with the ineffective, adequate, inappropriate and indeed, sometimes, not well reasoned policies guiding the economy at that time led very serious economic collapse. Throughout the early 1980’s the structural imbalance in the economy increased rapidly which resulted in persistent balance of payments deficits, rising external debts and in sustainable debt burden, currency over valuation declining production and of course, rising prices which have been the most evident even to the illiterate. These problems in Nigeria were not made better by the developed countries who adopted protectionist policies for their economics.
The drought of 1983 brought with it poor harvest which was also a contributory factor to the inflation in prices. As this economic crises deepened, internal and external debts mounted rapidly and the inability to pay these debts increased rapidly and the inability to pay these debts increased just as rapidly.
The situation could just not go on. The Nigerian Government then started to make efforts to find lasting, not short term, solutions to these problem which threatened to destroy an economy which had a lost of prospects once. This led to the adoption of several monetary and credit policy measures in 1981 which were designed to provide an optimum level of bank credit and to channel such credit into the mere productive and small scale enterprises, which were sectors of the economy, as a means of raising the level of employment and output of goods and services. They were also aimed at reducing further the rate of price inflation and maintaining a healthy of balance of payment position.
However, these policy objective, were not achieved – a healthy balance of payments position was clearing not achieved. Infact, it surveying from a substantial surplus in 1980 to huge deficit 1981 as result of a sharp decline of the country’s revenue from the oil sector. There was ineffectiveness of import regulatory measures and therefore foreign expenditure increased greatly.
This led to the adoption of the import licensing programme in 1984. Under this programme, all imports were placed under specific import licensing as to reduce the volume of imported goods and as a result reduce external debt. In 1985, the Federal Government declared a fifteen month economic emergency period during which specified proportions of worker’s salaries and wages, as well as companies. Profits were compulsory paid to the government.
These two programmes above were not efficiently restructuring the economy. They had good effects on only some aspects of the economy. This brought about more detailed search for more lasting solution to the economy’s problems. As a result of this the Federal Government introduced the structural adjustment programme (SAP) in July, 1986.
As all other programme before the structural adjustment programme have not been effective in clearing the distortions in the economy. This project will discuss this particular stabilization measure in greater detailed, more positively directed and is still in use in the economy of Nigeria today.
This project reviews the stabilization measures which have been introduced for balancing and improving the Nigeria economy from 1985 till date and examine the role of the Central Bank in implementing these measures.
The direct role of the Central Bank in the structural adjustment programme was programmed to include the design the implementation of the modalities for exchange rate policy, foreign exchange management, external debt management monetary and credit control and domestic monetary policy reforms.
The Central Bank also offers advice to the Federal Government in areas such as fiscal, external trade and other public sector policies.
In implementating and designing the modalities for the exchange rate policy, the Central Bank calls for bills daily from authorized dealers for available foreign exchange. Foreign exchange is sold to successful bidders, in effecting foreign exchange management, the Central Bank of Nigeria took measures to encourage the inflow of funds into foreign exchange market (FEM) from non-official sources.
The Central Bank in collaboration with the Federal Ministry of Finance also plays a role in the management of external debt, especially with respect to reducing the burden and volume (stock) of debt through debt rescheduling and debt conversion. The policy of the economy is also formulated by the Central Bank of Nigeria to support the government strategies.
The main sources of authority for the administration of foreign exchange transitions in Nigeria is the exchange control Act 1962. Under provision of this Act, authority for the grant of approvals in respect of foreign exchange transactions is vested in the Minister of Finance. However, most of the functions in respect of private sector transactions, visible importer, education, medical, expatriate home remittances, travel, airline payments, other services etc. have been delegated to the Central Bank of Nigeria, which in turn has delegated approving authority for all but a few of these to the authorized dealers on foreign exchange.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The history of economic growth shows that, economic transformation started in England in the Late eighteen century and gradually spread to other parts of Europe and North America. Economic transformations did not get to other parts of thee world until in the 1950s when Japan transformed to become one of world’s major industrial giants. This economic transformation has spread far and wide in the recent times but its spread is highly limited in Africa. It is only South Africa that has experienced it so far. This is clearly demonstrated by the World Bank report of (2001) which states that out of the 46 poorest countries in the World, 35 of them are in Africa.
Nigeria with it’s vast resources of both human and material nature is not left out of the club of poverty stricken countries. This poverty is illustrated by the recent World bank report (2005), which says that more than 70% of Nigerians are living below poverty line.
It is against this background that this study is being undertaken. This poverty can be tackled using both fiscal and monetary policies to help solve this problem and growing poverty. So far, removing the country from poverty trap that seems almost impossible to be solved using variety of macro-economic policy measures.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Due to the apparent and seemingly increasing distortions in the economy, such as the constant decrease in the value and purchasing power of the Naira rising price.
The problem of inflation in Nigeria has been confronted in variety of ways by the government of the country using different macro-economic policies. The government introduced several measures e.g. National Development Structural adjustment Programmes (SAPs). Guided Deregulation etc. to combat this problem. Despite all these measures, we still experience inflation in the country.
The question now is, why we still experience inflationary conditions after all these variety of measures adopted by the government to control it or reduce it intensity?
Moreover, the issue of monetary policy has its objectives one of which is tackling the problem of inflation. The Central Bank applied all measures to control it still every effort seem to be fruitless.
The nest question is why have all these measures failed in combating the problem of inflation?
1.3 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE
I’m specifically writing this project in partial fulfilment towards the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in accountancy.
Other genera objectives of the study include the following among others:
To provide the readers with broad knowledge of the different activities carried out by the Central Bank of Nigeria in Nigeria’s macro-economic stabilization process.
Enlighten students, readers and researchers on the significance of Central Bank of Nigeria and it’s role in the process of Nigeria economic development.
To highlight the relevance of monetary policy in combating inflation.
Try to explain the various types of monetary policy that can be used to combat inflation and other macro-economic problems.
Identify and discuss the monetary policy problems with particular reference to Nigeria.
To explain the various instruments of monetary policy that can be used to combat inflation especially in less developed Countries (LDCS) such as Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis have been put forward to guide research work
Ho1: Monetary Policy is not an effective tool of macro-economic stabilization of an economy.
Hi1: Monetary Policy is a very effective tool of macro-economic stabilization of an economy.
Ho2: Money supply has no impact on the Level of economic activities and growth.
Hi2: Money supply has an impact on the level of economic activities and rate of growth.
Ho3: Central Bank of Nigeria’s monetary and credit Policy guidelines and money supply do not have impact on the level of outputs.
Hi3: Central Bank of Nigeria’s monetary and credit Policy guidelines and money supply do have impact on the level of outputs.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
However, this research work will assist the economy to derive possible solution to the research problem e.g. control of inflation using monetary policy measures as adopted by the monetary authorities of the Central Bank.
Furthermore, the research ex-rays the various types of monetary policy measures, which can be used to combat the problem of unstable economy and prices, and as a result will be a kind of research materials to those in various fields may be of immense use of future researchers.
Government will benefit immensely from this research works as the topic is very relevant in the field of macro-economic policy formulation.
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This project covers the role of monetary policy and it’s controlling inflation in the Nigeria economy. A general overview of monetary policy and inflation in the Nigerian economy is the foundation upon which the project is developed.
However, study of this nature is known to be subject to a number of problems or constrains, which are peculiar to the Nigerian society such as financial constraints. This research work was not an exception the problem of visiting the Central Bank of Nigerian and some other places for data collection involved spending a lot of money or transport expenses.
Hence, the predicament of the overage students can therefore be imagined.
Furthermore, the issue of office protocols time limit, secrecy inadequate research materials also were some setbacks to the researchers in carrying out this research.
1.7 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE STUDY
A Central Bank is a financial institution owned by the government of a nations run by Board of Directors, Chaired by Governor appointed by the government and charged with the responsibility of managing the expansion and contraction of the volume, cost and availability of money in the interest of public welfare. It is primarily a non- profit entity in U.S. it is called the Federal Leisure while in the U.K. it is the bank of England.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Expansionary Monetary Policy: Is a monetary policy that seeks to increase the size and volume of money supply, it can be increase by buy bonds in exchange for hard currency payment to adds that amount of currency to the money supply.
2. Contractionary Monetary Policy: This is the policy that can be implemented by reducing the size and volume of monetary base by the way of sell bonds in exchange for hard currency, by so doing it removes that amount of currency from the economy.
3. Reserve Requirement: Commercial banks are required to maintain certain reserve requirement in order to control their liquidity and influence their credit operations, these are usually expressed as a percentage of customers deposits.
4. Discount Rate: The discount rate is the rate of interest the monetary authorities charge the commercial banks on loans extended to them. If the Central Bank wishes to increased liquidity and investment, it reduces the discount rate, and on the other hand if the Central Bank wishes to reduce liquidity in economy, it raises the discount rate.
5. Liquidity Ration: The Central Bank imposes upon the bank a minimum liquidity ratio, being vary to the needs of the situation. It is designed to enhance the ability of bank to meet cash withdrawals in them by their customers. Such liquidity ratio stands for the proportion of specified assets.
6. Open Market Operation (OMO): This involves the Central Bank Discretionary power to sell or purchase securities in the financial market in order to influence the volume of credit and interest rate which consequently affect money supply. The securities include treasury certificates, treasury bill and development stock
7. Moral Suasion: Is the act of public pronouncements or outright appeal on the apart of monetary authorities to the banks requesting them to operate in a particular direction for the realization of specified government objectives.
8. Economic Growth: This is a process whereby the real per-capital income of a country increases over a long period of time. Economic growth is measured by the increase in the amount of goods services produced deposits are savings and currents account of deposits in a commercial bank.
9. Money Supply: Is a currency with the public and demand deposits with commercial banks. Demand deposits are savings and current account of depositors in a commercial bank.
10. Economic Life Cycle: This refers to a view of product design, each stages of the product’s life is assessed in terms of cost, at each stage of this life cycle choice have to be made.
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