1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Communication is a means of bringing about change. It is the mainstream of any organization growth. There is need form interaction and understanding of management-employee relations this will bring about increased performance of all parties involved in the communication process or chain. According to Banihashemi (2011), communication as a medium, a means to performance ends, or as constitutive, as the end in itself. Communication is a process of transmitting information from one person to another. According to Stephen (2011), communication is a critical factor in directing and mobilizing the workforce towards the accomplishment of the organizational goals or objectives. By creating understanding it enhances co-operation and promote effective performance. According to Williams (2007) smart managers understand that the end effective, straight forward communication between managers and employees is essential for success.
According to (Mckinney, Barker, Smith& Davis,2004)communication is essential to effective team performance and communications for any organization is like blood flow in the human body. Therefore any organization that understands the importance of communication uses it in their organizational environment. Since, it ensures coordination of factors of production and most importantly material and human elements of organization as an efficient network of change and advancement. According to Snavely (2001) as cited by Robins(2006), communication process is initiated through the following means
-The sender-encoding-the message
-The channel decoding-
-The receiver noise and feedback.
It is estimated that managers spend over 80% of their day communicating with others. Since most of the basic management process- planning, organizing, leading and controlling – cannot be performed without communication. Importantly, the relevance of communication keeps advancing as the world becomes a Global village. The need to become visible to the world has made many organizations to embrace new technology that would increase organizational performance. There are also many issues affecting communication ranging from difference in sex, role of silence, inference of government and cross- cultural inference. This would stand as a mile stone for Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) as a whole networked for organizational communication and performance. Therefore it becomes important to emphasize on innovation and use of communication medium or channel to bring about high performance rate. Hence any breakdown in communication process or chain can have serious adverse effects on organizational performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Many organizational disputes or disagreement can be attributed to failure in communication. Hence it is important to highlight that communication is relevant to enhancing organizational performance. In the view of Okoye (2004), communication goes beyond reception of information but understanding and feedback. Most organizational conflicts/disputes have been traced to communication as supported by (Lee, 2003; Scott, 2004). According to Chudi –Oji (2013), In spite of the laudable roles of communication in improving organizational performances, it is regrettable that most organizations pay lip service to the maintenance of communication systems. This communication breakage has significant affected organizational growth which has contributed to low productivity level of employees as well as the high level of unemployment currently in Nigeria. Therefore, performance of employees in relation with their duties and responsibility seems to question their communication techniques in terms of performance in organizations. These problems mentioned above, has posed the following questions that would guide the study and thereby enhance quality of communication in the Nigeria Television Authority
1.3 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
The specific objective of the study is to determine and evaluate on the strategies of enhancing organizational performance through communication. The specific objectives of the study include.
1. To investigate the relationship between communication and employee performance in Nigeria Television Authority.
2. To examine the communication techniques that enhances performance in Nigeria Television Authority.
3. To ascertain whether communication gap has affected administration structure procedure in Nigeria Television Authority.
4. To examine if communication affect organizational performance.
5. To ascertain if organization environment affect communication
6. To verify if communication difficulties affect various management cadre in organization.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Undoubtedly communication in an organization is the strategy for enhancing and directing the performance of any organization in this present day complex and competitive environment that notwithstanding the following questions will be asked.
1. Does communication affect organizational performance?
2. Does organization environment affect communication?
3. What are the communication difficulties affect various management cadre in organization.
4. How can organizational performance be enhanced by communication?
5. What is the impact of the environment on both inflow and outflow of communication in the organization?
6. What are the major factors responsible for the difficulties encountered in the interpersonal communication between top level managers and lower level managers?
This research question will be answered in the objective of the study.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research work is to study effectiveness of communication as a tool for enhancing organizational performance with regard to Nigeria Television Authority, NTA.
The scope of this study is not intended to embrace in detail all that may have been required to develop the topic of the study because of its broad and its inherent difficulties associated with obtaining data because of time constraints – which will hamper a useful detailed development of the research topic.
However, this study will be in terms of the population studied, here the unit of data collection will be taken from the public affairs community relation department sales department, administrative and human resources department.
More so, the studies carried out so far are
(a) The reaction of top management staff to communication
(b) The process that can enhance communication in organization.
(c) How can communication enhance organizational performance?
(d) Factors that account for the achievement and failure of organization
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research work will be of immense benefit to various forms of organization in Nigeria at the conclusion of this research work, both top and low level managers in Nigeria organization would be able to view communication as a means by which people are linked in an organization to achieve their common objective and ensure organizational growth.
This research work will be of importance to Nigerians in general because it would describe the various methods techniques and means by which communication as a strategy for enhancing organizational performance.
More so, this study would produce an insight for top middle and low level managers in organizations in Nigeria to understand the ongoing: in the Nigerian business environment.
The research work would be a useful source of materials for information, teaching and for future research purposes.
Finally this study will assist in knowing the benefit to be enjoyed and derived that really emphasizes on the concept of organizational communication as a strategy for its organizational growth and performance.
1.7 HISTORY OF NIGERIAN TELEVISION AUTHORITY (NTA)
The Nigeria Television Authority came into being in May 1977 through Decree 24 of 1977 which had retroactive effect from April 1976. By the Decree, all existing 12 regional television stations established in the country between October 1959 and 1974 came under the umbrella of Nigeria Television authority (NTA) which became the only body empowered to take Television Broadcasting in Nigeria.
The Nigeria Television Authority is a parastal in the Federal ministry of Information. It was established by the Nigeria Television Act cap 24 of 1976. It is the National Television Broadcasting Network for Nigeria, expressly mandated to provide a public service in the interest of Nigeria, Independent and Impartial television broadcasting for general reception within Nigeria. Nigeria Television Authority (NTA) has maintained a systematic growth through the years from 12 stations of in caption in 1977. Nigeria Television Authority as of today, boasts of about 100 stations with presence in every state, capital and all sensational districts.
NIGERIAN TELEVISION AUTHORITY
Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) is owned by the Federal Government. It has the widest reach with stations in all states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory. NTA was inaugurated as the government owned body in charge of television broadcasting in Nigeria. It is viewed more as government mouth-piece than an independent outfit. It had, for a long time, enjoyed monopoly on the Nigerian airspace until the emergence of private stations. It is available through Sky Digital in the UK on channel 202.
In the first instance, its exclusive right for television broadcasting in Nigeria was revoked.
Secondly, the mandate to operate as a non-profit public service entity was partially revoked. It is now a Public Service partly funded by Government, partially commercialized but operates strictly within the enabling public service guidelines, the Broadcasting code and civil service structure.
Thirdly, the broadcasting mandate of the NTA has been expanded from only broadcasting to Nigeria to broadcasting to Nigeria and the world at large.
The establishment of the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) was the first attempt by the Federal Government of Nigeria to have a centrally financed and co-ordinated television industry. Born out of an experiment in joint broadcasting in Nigeria, the authority played a major role in further development of the industry. In order to provide effective and co-ordinated coverage of the second All-Africa Games hosted by Nigeria in 1973, all the broadcasting agencies in the country were pooled together to form the Broadcasting Organization of Nigeria (BON). So, instead of flooding the sporting arena with hundreds of radio and television crew from the numerous radio and television stations in the country, the new organization co-ordinated all the broadcasting activities and fed all the media units from that central pool. This experiment was so unifying and successful that the military government, a few years later, decided to unite all the various television stations in the country under one body — the Nigerian Television Authority. A decree (No. 24 of 1977) was promulgated (effective from April, 1976) establishing the Nigerian Television Authority. Adegbokun (2011) summarized the powers of the NTA under the decree thus: The decree gave the Authority the exclusive right for television broadcasting in Nigeria. It stated further that 'it shall be the duty of the Authority to provide, as a public service in the interest of Nigeria, independent and impartial television broadcasting for general reception within Nigeria'. The Authority shall ensure that the service which it provides, when considered as a whole, reflects the unity of Nigeria as a Federation and, at the same time, gave adequate expression to the culture, characteristics and affairs of each Zone or other parts of the Federation (p. 3). The N.T.A. took over the ten television stations that existed in the country and embarked on a policy of equitable geographical spread of television stations throughout the country. As the ten stations that already existed were sited in ten state capitals, the N.T.A. decided to set up nine additional television stations in the capitals of the remaining nine states of the Federation. A station was also established at the new Federal Capital, Abuja.
The N.T.A. Zones
In order to ensure effective management of all the television stations, the N.T.A. decree created six operational zones: Zone 'A' comprised N.T.A. Ibadan, N.T.A. Ikeja and N.T.A. Abeokuta; Zone 'B' N.T.A. Benin, N.T.A. Akure, N.T.A. Aba-Owerri and N.T.A. Port Harcourt; Zone ' C N.T.A. Enugu, N.T.A. Calabar and N.T.A. Makurdi; Zone 'D' N.T.A. Kaduna, N.T.A. Kano and N.T.A. Jos; Zone 'E' N.T.A. Maiduguri, N.T.A. Yola and N.T.A. Bauchi; and Zone 'F' N.T.A. Sokoto, N.T.A. Minna and N.T.A. Ilorin. Each of the six zones is headed by a managing director. The three remaining stations, N.T.A. Lagos, N.T.A. Channel 10, Lagos, and N.T.A. Abuja, being sited in the old and the new Federal capitals (Lagos and Abuja, respectively) were to function together as the National Television Production Centre, also headed by a managing director. The entire N.T.A. organization made up of 22 stations is headed by a director general at the Headquarters, Lagos (Adegbokun2011, p. 5).
The N.T.A. provided a far more organized approach to television expansion and utilization in Nigeria because its functions were carefully mapped out by the decree. These functions are:
(a) to erect, maintain and operate television transmitting and receiving stations;
(b) ensure the establishment and maintenance of standards and promote the efficient operation of the entire system in accordance with national policy;
(c) establish and operate a formula for sharing funds among stations;
(d) act as liaison between Federal Government and the zonal operations; (e) plan and co-ordinate the activities of the entire television network;
(f) establish such number of production centres as it may consider necessary from time to time;
(g) specify the type of programmes which should be transmitted by the whole network and the quantity, type and contents of foreign materials; (h) enter into arrangements with any person or any authority for the purpose of obtaining concessions, licences, privileges and other rights;
(i) manufacture, produce, purchase, or otherwise acquire films, gramaphone, and other mechanical records and materials and apparatus for use in connection with the broadcasting services;
(j) provide other persons with, and receive from them, matters to be broadcast;
(k) organize, provide and subsidize for the purpose of broadcasting, educational activities and public entertainment;
(1) collect in any part of the world and in a manner that may be thought fit both news and information and to subscribe to news agencies;
(m) acquire copyright;
(n) acquire public printed matter that may be conducive to advancing skills of persons employed in the broadcasting services, or the efficiency of the equipment used in the broadcasting services or the manner in which that equipment is operated, including the providing of the Authority or the others on its behalf of facilities for training, education and research.
The N.T.A. has made significant achievements since its establishment in 1977. Its one-time Director General, Dr. Ofonagoro (2012) spoke of some of these achievements while opening the West African Regional Conference of the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association.
We in Nigeria have accumulated some experience of television broadcasting reaching back to 2009, when the Western Regional Government of Nigeria established the first television service in Africa.... In recent years, we have engaged in an ambitious transmitter development programme which laces the entire system into one single national grid, with a network of transmitters, microwave links and satellite transmission facilities, all aimed at achieving a 100 per cent coverage of the entire territory and people of Nigeria in the very foreseeable future (sic) (p. 21).
When the civilian administration took over from the army in 1979, an amendment was introduced to the N.T.A. decree (renamed 'the N.T.A. Act'). The 1979 Constitution gave the Nigerian president the power to allow state governments, organizations and individuals to operate television stations, hence reverting to the previous situation. The immediate outcome was predictable; many state governments rushed into establishing their own state-owned television stations to compete side by side with the 22 N.T.A. stations. By the end of 2011, nine additional television stations had been established by Ogun, Oyo, Anambra, Ondo, Bendel, Imo, Lagos, Plateau and Kano states. One advantage to the television industry, and to the nation as a whole, of the two bouts of speedy proliferation of television stations was the rapid increase in the use of the television medium by Nigerians. Many individuals, establishments and homes procured television sets as a result of the oil wealth of the last two decades. Adiche (1974) reported a survey which showed that '. . . about 87 per cent of the people surveyed viewed more than two hours of television programmes a day in all states'. In addition, the number of channels which became available to some Nigerian viewers increased from one or two during the early 1960s to five or more channels in some locations in the country by the 1980s. Muniru (2012) commented on the increased choice of television channels for Nigerian viewers. He affirmed that television had spread to all areas of the country. Growth had been phenomenal. Viewers between Western State and Lagos could select from some twelve channels. When, in 2012, the army again came into power in Nigeria, they immediately directed their attention to correcting some of the politically motivated developmental disparities of the civilian administration. Proliferation of television stations in Nigeria became one of the many such areas of attention. The military government, in 2012, announced a plan to rationalize the number of radio and television stations in the country. Paradoxically, the availability of numerous radio and television stations in Nigeria during the 1979-83 civilian administration should have enhanced national unity but instead it produced widespread disharmony caused by the unprecedented misuse of these two media facilities by politicians and their agents. While inaugurating the Committee for the Rationalisation of Radio and Television Services, the then Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters, lamented the abuse of the radio and television media by the politicians during the civilian regime. New Nigerian (October 24, 2012) reported the Chief of Staffs remarks:
The exercise was aimed at streamlining television broadcasting in the country, saving cost and making the services more efficient. He condemned the role played by the various radio and television stations during the civilian regime. He said that the stations without exception became megaphones of political parties in power, suppressing or grossly distorting information to serve the whims and caprices of politicians. By so doing, Brigadier Idiagbon added, 'they fanned the embers of disunity, disaffection and discord'. They also succeeded in poisoning the political atmosphere to such an extent that law and order virtually broke down in many states of the Federation.
It was expected that radio and television broadcasting and development in Nigeria would be given a new sense of direction as a result of the findings and recommendations of the Rationalization Committee. However, we hasten to say that political considerations again helped to frustrate the efforts of government to effectively prune down the number of radio and television stations in the country.
again helped to frustrate the efforts of government to effectively prune down the number of radio and television stations in the country.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Communication: is the transfer of information from one person to another
2. Organization: An enterprise/business entity.
3. Performance: The rate at which something works
4. Management: People or persons in charge of organization.
5. Top level Management: Refers to the heads of any organization
6. Middle level/management: This group consists of the personnel accountants and marketing officers this group is answerable to the top level management.
7. Lower level management: This group carries most of the information both to the top level and middle level management and they are referred to as the supervisory level.
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