CHAPTER I: Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
The importance of leadership in an organization can not be overemphasized. Leadership is a major element that sets successful and unsuccessful organizations and government apart. It plays central role in offering direction and purpose towards achieving goals of the organization. It is also an important element in the social relationship of groups at work. Leadership is the main factor that determines and shape group behaviour. When it is correctly applied, each employee enjoys a feeling of strong commitment towards achieving organizational goals. Regardless of equality of its members, every group will tend to have a system in which it will have a leader.
However, organizational goals can never be achieved without proper leadership style in play. It is important to note that the effective performance of an individual employee is a function of both his personal characteristics and the individual environment. A careful consideration of knowledge, skills, experience, attitude and motivation of an employee enhance maximum productivity and efficiency in the job. Since leadership deals with the human resource element, it provides the basis for effective utilization of material resources in an organization through individual skills, knowledge and ability.
Leadership can simply be defined as a process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group towards attainment of set goals. Leadership is the life wire of an organization. Douglas McGregor theory X and theory Y is to the view that leaders attitude towards human nature as a large influence on how that person behaves as a leader and how it affects the employee under the leader. It is however important to note that no single leadership style is likely to be effective in all circumstances, leadership style vary based on surroundings and circumstances.
However, instead of concentrating on a single leadership style, leaders can vary their approaches depending on three factors: forces in the leader, forces in the subordinate and forces in the situation. An effective leader is measured by his ability to manage and withstand forces around him and how to effectively utilize human and material resources to attain organizational objectives. Douglas McGregor put it clear that there is a close relationship between leaders’ expectation and the resulting performance of subordinates. He further explains that if leaders’ expectations are high, productivity is likely to be high.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the problems observed by the researcher is the inflexibility of the leadership style by most organization managers. They fail to adjust their style of leading to the changing situations and business environment. This failure is as a result of the lack of understanding of the fact that no one particular style of leadership can fit all conditions and must be flexible to give room for change.
Another problem is close to the first. Managers failure to consider the prevailing situation when leading their subordinates. They fail to allow the situation dictate the particular style of leadership to adopt.
Also is the problem of absence of an effective line of communication between the manager and their employees. The communication gap between leaders and their subordinate posses a big problem for several organization as effective leadership is predicated on communication pattern of both the managers and their subjects.
In conclusion, leaders lack managerial experience in ensuring that workers are motivated, the absence of motivation contributes to the inefficiency and ineffectiveness of workers.
1.3 Objective of the Study
a. To identify the different leadership styles and their relationship with employee productivity
b. To determine the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation
c. To ascertain the effects of leadership styles on employee morale
d. To determine the relationship between employee productivity and placement
e. To examine the significance of leadership styles on organization survival
1.4 Significance of the Study
This research work is aimed at improving employee productivity through the various leadership styles. It is also aimed at highlighting the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation, the significance of leadership styles on organization survival. It will also serve as reference document to students, government, other researchers and scholars, leaders, employee by contributing towards the advancement of knowledge in management and other field. It is also a requirement in partial fulfillment for the award of Higher National Diploma in Purchasing and Supply of Kaduna Polytechnic.
1.5 Research Questions
a. What are the different leadership style and their relationship with employee productivity
b. What are the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation
c. What are the effects of leadership styles on employee morale
d. What are the relationship between employee productivity and placement
e. What are the significance of leadership styles on organization survival
1.6 Scope of the Study
The study centre on the concept of leadership styles and their impact on employee productivity, to identify the different leadership styles and their relationship with employee productivity, to determine the relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation, to determine the relationship between employee productivity and placement, to ascertain the relationship between leadership styles on employee morale, to establish the impact of leadership styles on organization survival.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Leadership: The process of directing and inspiring employee to perform task and oriented activities of the organization.
Style: The various behavior patterns favoured by leaders during the process of directing and influencing employee.
Productivity: The act of carrying out an action or a piece of work.
Motivation: The force that influence, enthusian, direct employee energy towards the attainment of set objectives.
Autocratic: One who rules by his own power without seeking the opinion of his subordinate.
Democratic: One who adheres to, or promote individual participation as a principle.
Laissez faire: A leader general principle of no interference with the free action of his subordinate.
Organization: Are artificially contrived structures with procedures and objectives defining the responsibilities and highlighting who does what type of job task.
Reward: Feeling of satisfaction derived from achieving recognition and competence.
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