CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
In today’s competitive business world, it is understood that organizations can only compete with their rivalsby innovating. Organizations can only innovate by managing their human resources well (Kuvaas, 2006). Employee Job Performance has to do with accomplishment standard of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. Performance is seemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation in a manner that release the performer from all liabilities under the contract. This means that an employee must be properly, evaluated in term of their productivity, skills taken decision and total commitment to their job so as to enable the organization to achieved expected goals (Kuvaas, 2006).
Every organization and business wants to be successful and have desire to get constant progress (Nishikawa, 2006). The current era is highly competitive and organizations regardless of size, technology and market focus are facing employee retention challenges (Oloko 2003). To overcome these restraints a strong and positive relationship and bonding should be created and maintained between employees and their organizations (Oloko 2003). Human resource or employees of any organization are the most central part so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards tasks fulfillment (Nnabuife 2009).
For achieving prosperity, organizations design different strategies to compete with the competitors and for increasing the performance of the organizations. A very few organizations believe that the human personnel and employees of any organization are its main assets which can lead them to success or if not focused well, to decline(Nishikawa, 2006). Unless and until, the employees of any organization are satisfied with it, are motivated for the tasks fulfillment and goals achievements and encouraged, none of the organization can progress or achieve success (Nnabuife 2009).
Motivation, as a process, started with a need in human being which creates a vacuum in a person. In an attempt to fill the vacuum an internal driving force is generated which starts and sustains a chain of action and reactionKayode (2003). It is at that point that the vacuum is also filled. With this background information (Nnabuife 2009), define motivation as the internal or external driving force that produces the willingness to perform an act to a conclusive end. This first aspect of motivation we choose to describe as internal motivation because the driving force comes from within an individual. The second aspect is external motivation, is applied by the organization. This is because employees are motivated to identify with organization in order to satisfy their varied and variegates needs and desires (Oloko 2003). Until they have been identified and properly satisfied, they will never cease to impede smooth running of the organizations(Nishikawa, 2006).
One of the biggest problems facing manager in the organizations is how best to get employees committed to their work and put in their best towards the accomplishment of organization’s objectives. Motivation is concerned with why people do what they do. It answers such questions as why do managers or worker go to work and do a good job (Nwachukwu 2004). Meyer and This tries to explain what motivates people to act the way they do, with primary focus on the work place. It is the primary task of the manager to create and maintain an environment in which employees can work efficiently and realize the objectives of the organization (Oloko 2003).
Employees differ not only in their ability to work but also in their will to do so (motivation). To motivate is to induce, persuade, stimulate, even compel, an employees to act in a manner which fulfilled the objectives of an organization (Nguyen 2005 and Egwurudi 2008).
The motivation of employees depends on the strength of their motives. Motives are need, wants, desire, or impulses within the individual and these determine human behaviour(Greene et al., 2002).Therefore, motivation is the process of arousing behaviour, sustaining behaviour progress, and channeling behaviour into a specific curse of action. Thus, motives (needs, desire) induce employees to act. Motivation therefore is the inner state that energies people, channels and sustains human behaviour (Greene et al., 2002).
Productivity involves goal attainment. It is the successful transfer of input to output at the lowest possible cost. Productivity implies both efficiency and effectiveness.
According to Nwachukwu, (1988) the essence of all motivational techniques to increase employee productivity motivated employee. Osuala, (1993) noted that unmotivated employees tend to be absent and tardy more frequently, they are difficult to supervise, represent a real financial burden to the organizations and their work in most cases has to be reduced and thereby increasing their organizational services costs.
Mah’s (2003) defined productivity as the measure of how well resources are brought together in organization and utilized for accomplishing a set of goals. It involves reaching the highest level of performance with the least expenditure of resources.
The above definition is two-tie. The first involves a set of result or performance. Performing or accomplishing a set of result refers to the effectiveness in reaching a mission, a planned achievement or a needed value without serious regard for the cost incurred in the process. Certainly, accomplishing a set of result is by far the most important focus of the productive concept because without it there is no productivity. The second part involves consuming resources without which achievements are not likely to happen and productivity cannot exist. It specifies the number type and level of resources needed, e.g. plant capacity, cost, raw materials, personnel, facilities, capital, technology. How well these resources are brought together refers to the efficiency of achieving results with minimum exposure of the resources. High productivity suggests minimum use of resources.
From the foregoing therefore, the study is intended to examine the relationship between motivation and employee performance in Business organization in Nigeria as it relates to NNPC Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Good remuneration has been found over the years to be one of the policies the organization can adopt to increase their workers performance and thereby increase the organizational productivity.
Workers leave organization due to the fact that they are not motivated enough. Some are not willing to leave because they are enjoying some benefit in terms of promotion, which leads to increase in salaries and wages, bonus and some other incentives.
Workers prefer financial incentives to non-financial incentives, more especially the junior workers, due to the fact that such incentives are not used as a motivational technique, the company have the problem and challenges of retention of their employees. Hence low performance and productivity becomes the end result and finally work dissatisfaction.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of the study is to examine the relationship between motivation and employee performance. The specific objectives are as follows:
1. To examine the relationship between reward and employee job performance.
2. To examine the relationship between job enrichment and employee performance.
iii. To examine the relationship between promotion and employee performance.
1. To examine the relationship between organizational culture and employee performance.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Does reward has significant relationship with employee performance?
2. Does job enrichment enhance employee performance?
iii. Does promotion has any correlation with employee performance?
1. To what extent does organizational culture influences the relationship between motivation and employee performance?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will serve as guide to the management of NNPC Port Harcourt in particular and the Nigerian managers as a whole in determining the best way of getting the best output from their employees who are presently demoralized in the face of the prevailing socio-economic hardship.
The study is also aimed at contributing to the literature in Motivation particularly with reference to employee performance. Also, this work on completion will broaden the essence for application of modern motivational techniques for both public and private sectors respectively.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is delimited under the following heading: content scope, geographical scope and unit of analysis.
1. Content Scope: The content scope of this study involves on investigation to ascertain the relationship between Motivation and employee job performance. The dependent variable is employee performance, measured by Productivity, Effectiveness and Efficiency. While independent variable is motivation measure by Reward, Job enrichment and Promotion.
2. Geographical Scope: This study is delimited in Port Harcourt Metropolis with special reference to NNPC, Port Harcourt, Rivers State.
3. Unit of Analysis: The unit of analysis in this research involves the individuals at the time of carrying out the study. The scope of this study is to ascertain the relationship between motivation and employee job performance.
1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
In carrying out an investigation of this native the researcher must of necessity be faced the following constraint.
Firstly, the time constraint’s the time frame provision for this study was short.
Secondly, financial constraints. Usually, a study of this nature involved some level of expenditure therefore, finance was also a limiting factor.
Thirdly, poor response from the respondent and inability to access the entire population of the study.Lastly, poor measurement instrument.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Employees: Employees would refer generally to staff of staff of an organization, both management and non-management and would be used interchangeably with workers.
Employees Needs: This refers to basic wants of employees, the desire to satisfy which activates their energy to satisfy and the fulfillment of which engenders positive work attitudes. In the study these needs are categorized into three: Existence, Relatedness and growth needs.
Motivation: Motivation would be seen as that energizing force consciously applied through skillful appeal to employees basic needs to compel positive work attitude to achieve organizational goal.
Promotion: Elevation of an employee to a better job, better in terms of greater responsibilities, enhanced authority more prestige or status greater skill increased remuneration and fringe benefits.
Work Attitude: This would refer to employee’s state of mind as expressed in concrete action behaviour or their manner of performing their duties.
Organization: An organized group of people with a particular purpose, such as a business or government department.
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