1.1 Descriptive Background to the study
The effect of manpower development on employee’s productivity and organization performance has attracted considerable interest in analytical and empirical literature. On the whole, human resources management theory has paid considerable attention to this subject matter (Dhamodharan 2010).
Manpower development is very vital to job productivity and organization performance since the formal educational system does not adequately provide specific job skills for a position in a particular organization. While, few individuals may have the requisite skills, knowledge, abilities and competencies needed to fit into a specific job function, some others may require extensive training to acquire the necessary skills to be able to fit in a specific job function and also make significant contribution to the organization’s performance.
The human capital theory provides evidence which indicates that training and education raises the productivity of workers by imparting useful knowledge and skills, hence raising workers’ future income by increasing their lifetime earnings also provide an explanation that links investment in training with workers’ wages (Becker 1964). According to Stone (2002), training has the distinct role in the achievement of an organizational goal by incorporating the interests of organization and the workforce.
Goldstein (1980) defined manpower development as the systematic acquisition and development of the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required by employees to adequately perform a task or job or to improve performance in the job environment. This implies that for any organization to succeed in achieving the objectives of its training program, the design and implementation must be planned and systematic, tailored towards enhancing performance and productivity.
Onasanya (2005) defines manpower development as a form of specialized education aimed at giving the employee a particular or specialized knowledge, skill and attitude which he must possess to effectively perform in a given position while development is concerned with specific programmes designed to prepare and groom a worker with particular education and training for higher responsibilities. Capacity building according to entails investment in human capital, institutions and practices necessary to enhance human skills, overhaul institutions and improve procedures and systems.
Sanusi (2002) further sees capacity building as the internalization of the knowledge, skills and processes that enable the formulation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of set goals in an efficient manner; while views it as a series of activities, which an organization, enterprise or even a nation needs to undertake to provide for itself, on a continuous basis, the supply of skilled manpower to meet its present and future needs.
Manpower development according to Anyanwu (2002) is the process of building up human resources to meet the needs of an organization. He stated further that Manpower development includes investment by a society in education, investment by employers in training employees and investments by individual in time and money in their own development.
Manpower development has been an important variable in increasing organizational productivity. Many researchers showed that manpower development is a fundamental and effectual instrument in successful accomplishment of the firm's goals and objectives, resulting in higher productivity. Manpower development builds a team that is effective, efficient and well motivating, thereby enhancing the confidence and self-esteem of employees. Manpower development creates chances for the promotion of employees to replace those who have left the organization. Indeed, the benefits of manpower development are innumerable. (Colombo 2008).
This study will therefore, examine the effect of manpower development on workers productivity in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar.
1.2 Statement of problem
The Cross River state civil service has a vision to become a model in Nigeria in terms of loyalty effectiveness, efficiency and quick service delivery and to maintain a highly motivated, efficient and effective Civil Service capable of speedily implementing Government programmes and policies.
However, every organization will always face challenges when the objectives of the employee is not in line with that of the organization. An employee may have the ability and determination, with the appropriate equipment and managerial support yet such employee may be underproductive. The missing factor in most cases is the lack of adequate skills, and knowledge, which are acquired through training and manpower development. Training reduces employee turnover and promotes goal congruency, while lack of training increases absenteeism rate, low output, poor quality and results in high unit cost (Adeniji 2002).
The continued complaints of low productivity and the demonstrated lack of commitment and efficiency of the civil service has been an issue of great concern. Various efforts have been expended by researcher, in an attempt to find a solution to the problems of the civil service and also successive government administrations have consistently increased the remuneration and allowances paid civil employees, still in an attempt to boost the effectiveness and productivity of it workers. However their productivity levels are unarguably not commensurate with the increment. The question that may naturally emanate from these is, could there be other factors apart from money that may account for the ineffectiveness and unproductively of an employee? And of course one of such key factors apart from pay that determines employees’ productivity is the employee’s skills and knowledge of the job and again what ultimately determines the amount of skills and specific knowledge an employee possess, is the level of training received by
the employee. As strongly note by Inyang (2001), the civil service has a penchant recruiting untrained and unqualified personnel and does little or in most cases makes no attempt to train personnel even after recruiting them.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The main objectives of the study is to examine the effect of manpower development on workers productivity in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar.
Other specific objectives of the study include;
(i) To determine the impact of manpower development on organizational performance in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar.
(ii) To determine the effect on manpower development on employee job performance in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar.
(iii) To assess the role of training in manpower development in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar.
1.4 Study questions
(i) To what extent does manpower development impact on organizational performance in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar?
(ii) How does manpower development influence employee job performance in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar?
(iii) What is the role of training in manpower development in Cross River State civil servants, Calabar?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study will be of immense benefits to public and private organizations especially Cross River State civil service Calabar to understand the strategic role of manpower development in organizational success. It will also help them to understand the steps to follow in designing and implementing training programme. The research will equally be significant to both state and federal government in making policies that will encourage regular training of its employees to update its worker with latest relevant skills that will enhance productivity. It will also serve as a valuable tool for students, academician, institutions and individuals that wants to know more about the strategic role of training needs assessment.
1.6 Scope of the study
In terms of coverage, this study examines the effect of manpower development on workers productivity in Cross River State Civil service, Calabar. This means that issues relating to manpower development will be explained. In view of the technicalities involved, it would be unrealistic to assume that all necessary facts will be gathered in the process of the study. Information is limited to those accesses and made available by the respondents and also have gathered from end users. More so, since large public organizations have many forms, the study will only be limited to Cross River State Civil service, Calabar.
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