1.1 Background of the Study
Total quality management can be defined as a strategy for improving business performance through the commitment of all employees to fully satisfying agreed customer requirements at the lowest cost through the continuous improvement of products and services, business processes and the people involved.
Deleforge (2000) also pointed out that total quality management is concerned with the management of all aspects of quality services provided to the customer. This includes quality of goods delivery price of services, quality of promotion and merchandising. The importance quality to an organization cannot be overemphasized because of it attribute to the fact that quality determines to a large extent, productivity, customer satisfaction, profit and other key performance element to an organization.
Total Quality Management (TQM) is one of the approaches used to enforce quality in the system and process of and organization as a concept, it sees the participation of all and sundry. Organization in the pursuit of quality so as to ensure customer satisfaction and organizational and societal benefit. The rationale behind the total quality management (TQM) concept is that, since a major objective of most corporate organizations (especially the profit concerns) is to gain and maintain competitive advantage every key elements that has a direct bearing on the achievements of that goal is to be accorded priority attention, among these elements is a quality as it is central to the organization’s competitiveness.
The concept of TQM view that, to achieve and sustain competitive advantage. A firm has to be at the best (optimum productivity) and on the other hand, the expectation of customers has to be met or satisfied. For the reasons quality which is true fundamental element in the productivity index assessment has therefore become and remain a business of all within the firm as it has direct linkages to both productivity and customers satisfaction problem surrounding the status of a company’s competitiveness cannot be in connected with it product performance that how well a product deliver to expectation, largely determines how competitive the company become.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
The continued effort of firm to grow and improve their performance, both internally and in the market place is constantly being challenged by a number of fundamental issues, for firm to perform credibly important key elements of its internally processes has to be looked into in relation to its market role and relevance, crucial among these basic is the subject of quality.
Quality represent a key component of the productivity index and even so the external performance or position of the firm in the market place.
The problems or challenges associated to quality for a firms to continues to be complex one. The question of these hastens firm fared in regard to quality is almost answer immediately by assessment of the revealing each firms position in the market place that begin to come to tire is how these firm see quality, has quality been properly defined as expressed in their processes and output? In what aspects are the firms internal processes adding the achievement of quality and which are the area in which they are lacking? What is the extent of their measuring to customers, requirements and expectation? The concept of total quality management (TQM) is an approach intended to inculcate a total quality orientation at all levels of the firm where quality is intended to achieved first and always how has this concept fared in the firms, in terms of applicability? Are the strategies, technology and culture and also training and development of organizational members of the organization duly impacted by the concept? What is the productivity assessment of the firm saying in regard to output on quality and firms competitiveness? A proper look and review of the perception, processes and applications of quality and the TQM concept would help to revise specific problems area as related to the subject in the firms and further suggest relevant approaches to solve them.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The objectives are as follows:
i) To identify the need for total quality management in an organization.
ii) To identify the extent to which total quality management is being applied in the organization
iii) To identify how total quality management control reduce cost of product and services
iv) To identify best strategies of the TQM concept that ensures quality, productivity and competitive advantage for firm.
1.4 Significance of the study
This research will be of much significance to address the following problem.
Setting up a standard of quality measurement system in the organization which has really affect the operation of the organization, and also lack of effective leadership of the organizational members, which can be attributed to total quality management in the organization.
This research work will also go a long way to help the organization the research work is carried out for them to compete globally in the market; it will also be of immense contribution to future researcher the similar study.
1.5 Research Questions
i) What are the needs for total quality management in the organization?
ii) What are the extents to which total quality can be applied in the organization?
iii) How can total quality management control reduce cost of production and service?
iv) What are the best strategies that total quality management concept that ensures quality productivity and competitive advantage?
1.6 Scope of the study
The scope of the study is concerned about the impact of total quality management on corporate productivity in Nigerian Bottling Company Kaduna, which is limited to what is happening in the Nigerian Bottling Company plc, Kakuri, Kaduna from 2004 to 2010.
1.7 Limitation of the study
In carrying out this research, the researcher are facing some problem and they are as follow:
One of the limitation face by the researcher is the time constraint, being the most serious and precious assets, coupled with the fact that it waits for no one, the researcher had no time owning to the fact that there are other numerous task and obligations to meet.
Another problem face by the researcher is finance the work was limited due to lack of enough money that will have enable me to do a more thorough job there, was limited to the level that the resources at my disposal permits.
Another problem face by the researcher is getting attention of the people the researcher intended to sample. When trying to ask question in the organization you are carrying out your research some people will not give you attention when you are trying to ask them question they don’t answer you.
1.8 Definition of terms
Management: this is the art of coordinating the element of factors of production toward the achievement of the purpose of and objective through the use of human labour, materials and machines.
Total quality: this is performance superiority in delaying customers.
Quality management: this is a management approach which advocates the integration of quality into organization’s strategy business plan.
Quality: this is an act of confirming to the client requirements. Quality is the ability to meet the requirement of customers, now and in the future at a lower over all cost.
Total: this means the summation or association of everybody with the company and its operations activities produces or services.
Quality control and assurance: this has the primary concern that all product and services are offered and given appropriate quality standards.
This chapter views the works and writings of authors, scholars and writers, on the subset of the study and related areas, under the following sub-headings:- Quality, Quality determinants, total quality management (TQM), principles of total quality management, criticisms of total quality management, benefit of total quality management, application of total quality management, challenges of total quality management, tools an techniques for quality management.
The concept or definition of quality, is one that has no universally accepted statement, various authors have made their submission based on their individual perception or emphasis.
Citing the 15D 8402 definition, Lysons and Farrington (2006) quarters, that quality is the totality of features and characteristic of a product and its “ability to satisfy stated or implied need” related to his external competency, quality therefore from this submission can be understood as being both inherent an performance based, this definition of quality reaching tangible products, the same can not be.
Process control chart: this is a time based graphic display that sows whether a machine or process is producing output at the expected quality level.
Zero effect: a quality mentality in which the work force strives to make a product or service to conform exactly to desired standards.
Quality system: the organization structure responsibilities, procedures, process and resources for implementing quality management.
Total quality management: this is the integration of all functions and process within an organization in order to achieve continuous improvement of quality of goods and services with the primary goal of customer satisfaction.
2.3 Quality determinants
According to Badi and Badi (2003) quality can be viewed in many stages, direct and indirect activities contributes to the quality.
i) Design stage: the quality care start a design stage, itself when design is made and revised base on
a. customer expectation
b. competitors product
c. easy maintenance replacement if spare and
d. innovation to be taken care.
ii) Material stage: the raw materials , component bought-outs (like motors bearing joint etc.) play most important role in aspect these are to be arranged as per the specification deviation in specialization is likely to have adverse effect on quality.
iii) Process stage: next important stage is processing of materials to convert into productions involve manual facturing, subcontracting assembly, trait–rum testing stage inspection and corrective actions if any.
iv) Quality to specialization: the common words like “goods quality” best quality, have no place in industrial quality management, what is important is quality per-specification, conforming to the specification is quality acceptance and non-conformance lead to rejection on quality ground specification is common language in industry and every on understood this hence confusion is avoided.
v) Organization focus: all employees of an organization and especially the top management must be committed towards quality concept and this alone helps to achieve an enduring quality culture.
vi) Training and re-training of human resources: it is human resource which will utilize machinery and tools. They only can discuss and negotiate new contracts, designing aspects, trails, run etc.
Hence training and development towards changes in technology, processing, standards and operation of new types of machines of essential, sometimes retraining is required to fire time, the skills and knowledge this is essentially from fortitude of the various stages by the authors as determinants to quality, the first fourth, and fifth stage appear to be the most crucial and significant to determining quality, whole all the other stages, can not be undermined yet evidently quality begin from the design stage, it is needs and requirements of customers are both capture and build into the manufacturing process. If the designing quality is faulty regardless of how defect free the meter its used or processed, may be, the ultimate product may not fit, the needs or requirement of the defaults of purpose of objective performance and expectation of the end users, if there is not gotten right the fitness to purpose as pest of quality would not be achieved, the other aspect of emphasis is the organization focus in deed to achieved quality it has to be everyone business in the organization, this total quality management approach.
2.4 Total Quality Management (TQM)
According to Hassan (2008) total quality management is a system focused on continuous improvement on product, services and customers satisfaction, it is a way of managing an organization so that all jobs and processes are carried out right, first time all the time Cali (2002) also defined total quality management to focus on three issues namely continuous, improvement, employee, participation and organization and societal benefits.
Total quality management can be seen as a management control to an organization centered on continuous quality improvement base on participation of all members and aiming at long term success through customers satisfaction and benefit to all embers of the organization and society.
From the above definitions, there is important of continuously improvement of quality of products and services to sand a best of time, so for total quality management to be achieved there is need for a continuous research and development for a change of test and fashions for the customer, how ever they see the total quality management concept as a tool that assist the organization to achieve excellent desired results on the whole, the total quality management concept can be viewed as an organization tool in the sense that it becomes instrumental to achieving desired results.
Bester field D.H. (2003) opined that “quality management absolute or total excellence in an organization’s critical areas of profitability cost effectiveness, customers relations, company image.
Productivity and quality in the goods and services provided to the customers” shifting emphasis slightly away from the TQM concept as a strategic approaches that concentrates or centers on some critical area or elements of an organization. The definition seem to insinuate that concept works out making concentrated efforts on some basic critical areas of success, factors according to the authors, TQM seek perfection” absolute or total excellence” on those critical success areas in other word for success to be ensured, there has to be total excellence in those listed areas. Thus TQM is used to achieve that Benton (2007) described TQM as “a continuous improvement process which reaches much wider than the traditional quality views of incoming inspection and process control which means that the entire organization is working as a team including top management and each and every employee”. Benton’s view bring to the fire, the linkage between the age old view on quality and TQM concept the traditional view on quality only looks at that coming into the organization by way of material (inspection) and what is being converted (processed) into finished goods.
According to Benton TQM transcends beyond that to a continuous process” that involves all members of the organization working together as a team. Another important definition or view of TQM is that offered by Lysons and Farrington (2006) total quality management is a way of managing an organization so that every job, every process is carried out right first the manufacture or services “total” that is 100 percent correct before it proceeds” just as Bentons definition Lysons and Farringtons also emphasize that TQM concepts as organization related according to the authors TQM is a way of managing that an organization the special focus however being that every job and every process is carried out perfectly that a right, the first line and every time the authors definition emphasized that processed jobs have to be done perfectly before making to the getting things right (100%) at each stage before moving to the next stage it also implies “at a continuous process in the sense that, the aim is not to do that once but all the times that a sum understanding of various definition see total quality management as a managerial approaches that seek to get job or task in the organization right at each stage and every other time and thus approach a responsibility of all the organization making it a term effort. Benton conclude that total quality management is a way of thinking that affect the culture, the strategy and the technology of a company”
2.5 Principles of Total Quality Management
According to Lysons and Farrington (2006) total quality management (TQM) is based on three important principles
a) Focus on product improvement from the customers view point. The key ideas in this principles are product improvement and customers product improvement. Omachonu (2002)emphasized the importance of achieving annual improvement or eliminating chronic losses or in demining is 10 technology, common causes of variation all break through follow a common sequence of this discovery organization, diagnosis, corrective action and control.
b) Recognition that personal at all levels share responsibility for product quality, were the author improvement affect every one in a organization at all levels share responsibility for product quality, have the author improvement affects everyone in an organization at all levels. It is therefore based on team rather than individual performance. This while top management provides leadership, continuous improvement is also understood and implemented at top level floor level some consequences of this principles include provision of leadership from the top creation of a quality culture dedicated to continuous improvement team work. That is quality improvement terms and quality circles, adequate resource allocation, quality training of employees recognition.
c) Recognition of the importance of implementing a system of proved information to mangers abut quality process that enables them to plan, control and evaluate performance, Lysons and Farrington based on the principle of total quality management on three things which the researcher agree with, that will go a long way in achieving (TQM) product improvement, recognition of personal at all levels and also recognition of implementing a system of proving information to managers that is customers expectation are always changing so there must be constant improvement on goods and services standard.
2.6 Circumstances of Total Quality Management
Criticisms of total quality management concept according to Lysons and Farrington (2006) include the following:
That overly zealous advocates to total quality management may focus attention of quality even though other priorities may be important such as changes in the market exemplified by the managers who said be made products, the customers did not want, we now churn but will made products that customers are in needs.
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