Demography is the statistical and mathematical study of the size, composition, and spatial distribution of human populations and how these features change over time. Data is obtained from a census of the population and from registries-records of events like birth, deaths, migrations, marriages, divorces, diseases, and employment. To do this, there needs to be an understanding of how they are calculated and the questions they answers which is included in these four concepts: population change, standardization of population numbers, the demographic bookkeeping equation, and population composition.
Population change is analyzed by measuring the change between one population size to another. Global population continues to rise, which makes population change an essential component to demographics. This is calculated by taking one population size minus the population size in an earlier census. The best way of measuring population change is using the intercensal percentage change. The intercensal percentage change is the absolute change in population between the censuses divided by the population size in the earlier census. Next, multiply this by 100 to receive a percentage. When this statistic is achieved, the population growth between two or more nations that differ in size, can be accurately measured and examined.
For there to be a significant comparison, numbers must be altered for the size of the population that is under study. For example, the fertility rate is
calculated as the ratio of the number of births to women of childbearing are to the total number of women in this age range (multiplied by 1000). If these adjustments were not made, we would not know if a nation with a higher rate of births or deaths has a population with more women of childbearing age or more births per eligible woman.
Within the category of standardization, there are two major approaches: direct standardization and indirect standardization. Direct standardization is able to be used when the population being studied is large enough for age-specific rate are stable. Indirect standardization is used when a population is small enough that the number of events (births, deaths, etc.) are also small. In this case, methods must be used to produce a standardized mortality rate (SMR) or standardized incidence rate (SIR)
Population composition is the description of population defined by characteristics such as age, race, sex or marital status. These descriptions can be necessary for understanding the social dynamics from historical and comparative research. This data is often compared using a population pyramid. Population composition is also a very important part of historical research. Information ranging back hundreds of years is not always worthwhile, because the numbers of people for which data are available may not provide the information that is important (such as population size). Lack of information on the original data-collection procedures may prevent accurate evaluation of data quality.
1.1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
(i) The difficulties encountered in keeping demographic data/information.
(ii) Miscalculation of demographic data/information,
(iii) Difficulties in accessing demographic data/information
(iv) Time wasted in searching for a given demographic data/information on packed files.
(v) Time wasted in processing demographic data/information
The need arise for the development of computerized based spec analysis system for national population commission Enugu.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The main purpose of this study is to eliminate errors involved in demographic data/information. This is actualized by designing computerized based spec analysis system for national population commission Enugu which is user friendly and interactive. By the time this software is designed and implemented, the difficulties encountered with manual method of keeping demographic information will be eliminated.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
With the growth in information technology, the study offers numerous values to the national population commission Enugu.
Huge of files kept in the offices will no longer be there again because information will be stored on the computer with the help of the database program.
1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The aims and objectives of this project is listed below:
To provide essential information for government decision making
To enable people understand their community
To eliminate gaze work in population census.
To demonstrate increased motivation to the census workers.
To easy the work associated with manual method analyzing demographic data/information.
To eliminate the error involved with the manual method analyzing demographic data/information.
To save the time wasted when method analyzing demographic data/information.
To make population council office neat and tidy as a lot of information will no longer be documented on paper but in computer.
To ensure easy retrieving and updating of demographic data/information.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This project work is narrowed to computerized based spec analysis system for national population commission Enugu. It also deals with the development of database program to help in the storage of demographic data/information in the national population commission Enugu.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Owing to the scope of this project work as stated above, this project work is limited to computerized based spec analysis system for national population commission Enugu.
It is important to mention here that TIME, FINANCIAL, NON-CHALANT
ATTITUDE OF THE STAFF.
Where major constraint occur ‟s in the course of fact finding. It is also wise to mention here that some information we need to work with were not collected because of some reason.
1.8 ASSUMPTIONS OF THE STUDY
One of the major assumptions made in this project work is that manual methods of processing demographic data/information are ineffective, time wasting, prone to error. It is also assumed that with the level of development in information technology, there is a serious demand to join this trend of information technology.
It is also assumed that computerized based spec analysis system for national population commission Enugu will motivate the staffs to work more with easy.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS/VARIABLES
Abundance: is an ecological concept referring to the relative representation of a species in a particular ecosystem.
Population: density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit
Male: refers to the sex of an organism, or part of an organism, which produces small mobile gametes, called spermatozoa. Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete or ovum, in the process of fertilization. A male cannot reproduce...
Female : is the sex of an organism, or a part of an organism, which produces ova (egg cells). The ova are defined as the larger gamete in a heterogamous reproduction system, while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon, is produced
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