1.0 CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
For the past several decades, the introduction of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) has resulted in tremendous improvements in many areas of human endeavors. It is seen as a crucial aspect of globalism, which connects the world with a wide range of assets (Ige, 2015). The internet provides students with numerous benefits, including simple access to knowledge and the ability to link to the rest of the world. These help them develop cognitively and socially (Johnson, 2010).
Since the beginning of the internet and electronic revolution in Nigeria a decade ago, the level of cybercrime has risen dramatically. In just over two decades, the internet has expanded to such proportions its become an integral part of the lives of thousands of people all over the world (Warner, 2011). Students will benefit greatly from having access to and efficient web capacity in schools in Calabar Municipality since it will enhance their level of understanding, writing abilities, and academic achievement by allowing them to browse the internet. However, if this is done unmanaged, it may lead to cyber criminality among students (Singh and Bala, 2014).
Singh and Bala (2014) Young students' unrestrained and persistent use of internet has the potential to reduce their productivity in class, according to the authors. The inverse relationship between young pupils' academic performance and heavy internet internet usage is harmful to their academic advancement and may lead to their becoming hackers. It takes up valuable time that could have been spent studying for higher grades. Barfi, Nyagorme and Yeboah (2018) reported that the vast majority of students in Nigerian schools have a good comprehension and knowledge of cybercrime. Youngsters are also more acquainted with the four primary types of cybercrime: malware, financial fraud, illegal access, and cyber identity theft, according to them.
Igba, Igba and Nwambam (2018) remarked that the world wide web has a significant effect on academic systems and nation progress. This has prompted individuals, businesses, and other organizations to open cyber cafés, which provide people with easy access to current events from across the world via the internet. This has provided several chances for institutions and other agencies to develop their motor and cognitive assets in order for graduates to be valuable to themselves and society as a whole. However, some people exploit this technology by abusing the vast resources that the internet provides, resulting in deceit or cybercrime
Magele (2011) Penetration and dissemination of information and communications technology (ICT) in Sub-Saharan Africa has ignited and infused a different dimension of life style across all areas of our daily transactions, including education, leisure, trades, and companies, according to the report. E-learning, e-banking, healthcare, e-commerce, and tele democracy etc.
Magele (2011) Moreover, this new level of progress has come at a great cost and burden of new illegal activities known as cybercrime, according to the report.
Students' academic success is an important aspect of schooling. It is regarded as the hub around which the entire educational system revolves. The success or failure of any academic institution is determined on the academic performance of its pupils. Students' academic success has a direct impact on a country's socioeconomic progress. The academic performance of students acts as a foundation for knowledge acquisition and skill development. Academic success of school students is the top priority of all educators. Academic performance refers to the knowledge obtained as measured by a teacher's marks or educational goals set by students and teachers to be met over a specified time period. They went on to say that these objectives are measured by continuous assessments or examination outcome
Ige (2015) Students in high school have been found to utilize the internet to perpetrate a variety of crimes. These offenses include stealing money and purchasing things online using other person's credit cards and identity, as well as sending emails to international corporations to steal dollars and pounds while neglecting their academics. students are increasingly using pornographic material and photographs to deceive people on online dating services which all has a negative influence on their academic performance. Cybercafés are significantly responsible for the availability and use of the web and other internet materials in several sections of Sub-Saharan African countries. Country such as Nigeria on the other hand, have very well mobile internet infrastructure via enhanced system and other fiber optic lines, allowing them to provide better online services to citizens (Abugri, 2011).
Jones (2011) shows how the Africa subregion, which has long been regarded as the worlds largest most backward and dark region, has leapt into the ICT world with disastrous results. This rapid and increasing rate of cybercrime on the African continent has been a cause of worry for all parties in the Sub-Saharan African region. The fact that four of the top ten countries in the world with significant levels of cybercrime predominance are from Sub-Saharan Africa makes the whole thing even more concerning (Nigeria). In Sub-Saharan Africa, the battle against cybercrime comprises all parties and should not be confined to police agencies (Jones, 2011).
In this era of ICT for growth, it is not out of line to say that cybercriminals poses a threat and can jeopardize the achievement of ICT-driven development in Nigeria. Cyber fraud can destroy data, other technological infrastructure and also affect confidence and trust in electronic operations and payments (Salifu, 2015).
According to Magele (2011) The internet is becoming such a necessary evil that it's become a two-edged sword, creating benefits for people and organizations while also increasing the risk of data security. Strong online frequency band and internet wireless connection, when combined with desktop computers, cell phones, and other hand-held electric devices, has improved corporate networks and made important data online easily available. In the global corporate environment, all of this has culminated in efficient and effective service execution. Without a question, the web has transformed and simplified everything in our lives, including school, commerce, politics, and health. It has, however, brought with it a certain element of risk recognized as cybercrime.
Over the last twenty years, cybercrime has emerged as a significant topic for investigators to study and investigate, as well as a growing issue for civil and public policy. Cybercrime is a term that covers crimes conducted using computers systems, as well as crimes that do not rely primarily on technology (Britz, 2015). Cybercrime is a term that refers to any illicit behavior that is carried out primarily through the use of a computer (Halder and Aishankar, 2011). Cybercrime, often called in Nigeria as yahoo through to the web, is very frequent among Nigerian school-aged children. Nigeria today isn't anything like the late 1990s, when only a few members of the minority rich classes had access to computers. The rise of ewaste has made it easier and inexpensive for most young people to purchase and own a used laptop at a low cost.
Internet access, both wifi and cable, has made online activity very effective and useful as well as troublesome among Nigerian students. That's because most students miss using web for fraudulent acts, negatively impacting their academic performance in subjects, and as a result, often these students drop out of school. (Warner 2011). Igba, Igba and Nwambam (2018) ICT, which was once considered as a tool for students to utilize to obtain material for their studies, has now taken on a new meaning for them. ICT is now being utilized to deceive people and as a hideaway for cyber crooks among students.it are on this the study centers on influence of cybercrime and student academic performance in history in Calabar municipality cross river state Nigeria
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The internet's assistance to the academic development of Nigerian history students has been tainted by the deliberate creation of fresh waves of crime. The internet has also evolved into a place where the most profitable and secure offense flourishes.
For the moment being, cyber-crime has come as a surprise and an uncommon presence in Nigeria. Every day, we witness a new heinous act of cyber-crime perpetrated by Nigerian students, each one greater heinous than the last. It has turned into a tenacious mouth sore that causes us a lot of pain and suffering and embarrassment since criminally inclined students are stealing and performing all kinds of academic and economic atrocities using the internet for online contact and activities.
Exam carelessness, fabrication of admission, rape, fraud and theft, sexual molestation, assault, and cultism are all common occurrences. With this heinous incident, the institution's academic pursuits have suffered a number of blows. it is on this the study centers on influence of cybercrime and student academic performance in history in calabar municipality cross river state Nigeria
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine influence of cybercrime and student academic performance in history in Calabar municipality cross river state Nigeria. Other general objectives of the study are:
1) To outline the various forms of cybercrime carried out by youths in Calabar
2) To examine the significant influence of cybercrime on student academic performance in history in Calabar municipality
3) To examine factors that influence students’ academic performance in History
4) To assess the causes of cybercrime among history student in Calabar
5) To recommend preventive ways of curbing cybercrime among students in calabar
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions shall guide this study and in the course of this research, we shall attempt to find answers to the following questions:
1) What are the various forms of cybercrime carried out by youths in Calabar?
2) What is the significant influence of cybercrime on student academic performance in history in Calabar municipality?
3) What are the factors that influence students’ academic performance in History?
4) what are the causes of cybercrime among history students in Calabar?
5) What are the preventive ways of curbing cybercrime among students in calabar?
1.5HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
HO: There is no significant influence of cybercrime on student academic performance in history in Calabar municipality
H1: There is a significant influence of cybercrime on student academic performance in history in Calabar municipality
1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
The revolution of ICTs has created a myriad of opportunities to mankind but cybercriminals are frustrating the significance of this invention. Criminals have deviced varied ways and means to defraud innocent people through cybercrime and other internet fraud. This and many others have necessitated this study to equip readers with a better understanding and also create awareness about the numerous strategies adopted by cybercriminals in scamming people. It will also bring to bear on some means and ways of combating cybercrime and other related online/internet fraud. The study also intends to add to the literature on the prevalence of cybercrime among history students and its effects on their academic progress. It also seeks to give estimates on the knowledge on cybercrime and its effects, on the individual and the country at large. Such information will serve as an important measure and provide focus for various intervention and prevention programmes, especially those directed towards young school children. The results of the research could also be used as a decision making tool or input for policy makers
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study would cover influence of cybercrime and student academic performance in history in calabar municipality cross river state Nigeria
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher was faced with the following constraints in carrying out this study:
Time: The time within the researcher is too short to carry on the detail study on this topic.
Resources: Another constraint of the researcher is financial resources to carry on the detail study of this topic.Data: Another limitation to this study will be lack of data to make valid study on the research problem.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF KEY TERMS
CYBERCRIME: Cybercrime is a crime that involves a computer and a network. The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Cybercrime may harm someone's security and financial health.
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE: Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor's degrees represent academic achievement
STUDENTS: A student is primarily a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment in a desired field
This chapter encompasses the introduction which provides an overview of the study. It also covers background of the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives, research questions, scope of the study, theoretical framework, and significance of the study and organisation of the chapters.
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