1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The classroom is where teachers and students come together to implement curriculum activities. Without a conducive classroom environment, educational goals cannot be fully realized. The classroom is defined by a web of interpersonal connections aimed at achieving a common educational goal. A good classroom environment should be well ventilated, fully furnished with chairs and desks, with adequate spatial arrangement, a large chalkboard, good floors, attractive walls, and sufficient lighting (Okeke, 2015). These are subjected to good management in order to achieve a high level of educational set-objectives achievement. To different people, the term "management" has different connotations. Some schools of thought regard management as a group of people charged with running a business, whereas others, such as Adu et al. (2014), define educational management as the coordination of educational resources through the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling processes in order to achieve educational goals and objectives. According to Bassey (2005), a broader view of classroom management shows increased engagement, fewer inappropriate and disruptive behaviours, increased student responsibility for academic work, and improved student academic performance. Discipline, control, and consequences, in effect, become authoritative or punitive classroom management strategies. Classroom management refers to the planning and coordination that takes place in the classroom. There will be confusion and chaos wherever activities are not recognized. For the comfort of the students and an effective teaching and learning process, classroom buildings, student furniture, and facilities must all be properly arranged and coordinated. The teacher creates and motivates classroom management, and how a class is managed reflects the type of relationship that exists between students and teachers. It should be noted that management is a universal phenomenon based on these definitions, as management functions are identical in all formal organizations, profit-making or not-for-profit. Teachers are classroom managers because they plan teaching activities, organize students and materials, co-ordinate, direct, motivate, counsel, and evaluate students in order to ensure that the teaching-learning process in the school system is successful. Poorly managed classrooms are not conducive to effective teaching and learning (Jones & Jones 2012). Adeyemo (2012) went on to say that effective teaching and learning can't happen without good classroom management. It entails everything teachers must do in the classroom to encourage students' academic participation and cooperation in classroom activities, as well as to create a positive learning environment. According to Morse (2014), classroom management entails the teacher's ability to control disruptive behaviors such as fighting and making noise, as well as close observation, the organization of classroom learning materials, and the response to students who have poor vision (vision), poor reading, poor writing, poor spelling, shame, dullness, hyperactivity, and poor study habits. Pane (2010) defined classroom management as the process of organizing human and material resources, motivating and inspiring students, and creating a cooperative working environment in order to achieve set educational goals and objectives. As a result of the foregoing, classroom management can be defined as the use of material resources and securing pupil or student cooperation in order for teachers to perform the functions of planning, organizing, directing, and co-coordinating at the classroom level. However, classroom management entails not only all activities implemented by the teacher, but also collaboration with school administrators to ensure an effective teaching-learning process in the classroom. Effective classroom management strategies support and facilitate effective teaching and learning and, more broadly, are based on the principle of creating a positive classroom environment that includes effective teacher-student relationships. It emphasizes proactive rather than reactive classroom management techniques. Teachers in the secondary education sector frequently use preventive strategies such as negotiating classroom rules rather than imposing them, as well as reactive strategies such as punishing disruptive students (Shook 2012; Rydell & Henricsson, 2014), though it is unclear whether these strategies effectively change student behavior, which may be as a result of inadequacy (Smart & Brent, 2010). Teachers' use of coercion through punitive strategies, on the other hand, has a negative impact on learning (Rahimi & Karkami 2015). Adams and Ray (2016) posed fundamental questions about what might be causing disruptive behavior in the classroom. Is the problem related to the school/class environment? Is it the child's fault? Is it from the teacher, or is it something else? Disruptive behaviours are inappropriate behaviours that interfere with a school's academic and administrative activities, so these questions must be addressed. Bullying, hitting, name-calling, sleeping in class, verbal or physical threat to students or teachers, prolonged chatting, excessive lateness, unexcused exit from class, eating in class, and other behaviours commonly identified by teachers include: bullying, hitting, name-calling, sleeping in class, verbal or physical threat to students or teachers, prolonged chatting, and excessive lateness, unexcused exit from class, eating in class, and so on (Rahimi & Karkami, 2015). These behaviours may interfere with the school's academic learning in a subtle or overt way, making it difficult for both students and teachers to function effectively and efficiently. Disruptive students not only cause problems for their classmates and teachers, but they also have a negative impact on their social and educational lives (Adams & Ray, 2016). To create an environment conducive to students learning, a sufficient level of classroom discipline is required. A student's misbehavior during class disrupts the learning and teaching process and ruins the effectiveness of the most important environmental factors that can assist learners in developing positive attitudes toward learning and promoting students efforts in carrying out learning tasks. Punitive strategies, according to recent research (Pane, 2010), work against the promotion of responsible student behavior and should be replaced with proactive and interactive discipline practices. The interactive discipline approach is a method of teaching students self-control that is based on a contract between a teacher and a group of students for the purpose of effective learning. As a result, a focus is placed on student self-regulation through negotiations, discussions, and contracts between teachers and students, allowing the group to take responsibility for ensuring that all members' behavior is appropriate (Rahimi & Karkami 2015). One of the techniques for effective classroom management that teachers can employ is verbal instruction. Clear instructions on what should be done, according to Adu et al. (2014), provide students with concrete direction to compliance. Teachers use this method to try to be consistent in enforcing verbal instruction so that the desired results are achieved. Until recently, corporal punishment was widely used in the classroom as an effective classroom management technique to reduce disruptive behaviour. Although it is no longer widely used, it is still used in some schools as an effective classroom management strategy by teachers in the classroom. According to Pane (2010), instructional supervision entails moving around the classroom to closely observe students, engaging students in academic activities, asking questions, and using both verbal and nonverbal teaching methods to ensure that students are paying undivided attention and learning more than just the facts. Another method of effective classroom management is delegation of authority to learners, in which the teacher delegated authority to deserving students and assigned them responsibilities such as cleaning the chalkboard, keeping time, controlling noisemakers, managing learning materials, collecting assignments from students, copying lesson notes on the chalkboard, and acting as a class representative on behalf of the class (Pane, 2010). These help to make the classroom a more pleasant place to be because they encourage collaboration between students and teachers. As a result, classroom management techniques are aimed at creating a conducive learning environment in which students can learn more easily and achieve better academic results. Depending on the nature of the problem, any of these techniques can be used in the classroom. As a result, effective classroom management is inextricably linked to a teacher's ability to set a positive tone and gain respect and cooperation from students. The manner in which teachers discipline their students has a significant impact on how they portray themselves as effective educators. In order to avoid disciplinary problems, more caring teachers choose relationship-based discipline strategies (for example, discussing misbehaviour with students) over coercive strategies (for example, aggressive and punishment) (Rahimi & Karkami, 2015). Students perceive more caring teachers and those who use relationship-based discipline strategies to be more effective teachers, according to Noddings (2017). Students learn better when teachers use appropriate teaching strategies, because discipline protects students from disruption, as well as emotional and cognitive threats. It also improves academic performance and influences students' motivation and achievement. In this way, the more students believe their teachers care about them, the more they will care about the class and, as a result, the more likely they will pay attention in class and learn more. Teachers, as classroom managers, are able to harmonize their students' minds and emotions in class, resulting in students who achieve higher academic achievement and performance in science subjects, particularly biology (Noddings, 2017).
Furthermore, it was discovered that among all the factors contributing to high academic performance of students in secondary schools in Minna, teachers' classroom management is the most important contributory factor in helping students improve their academic performance. In light of the foregoing, one important question that arises is whether Nigerian teachers are capable of managing classrooms effectively and efficiently. Against this backdrop, the researchers want to see if classroom management by teachers is linked to students' academic performance.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria most public secondary schools, give little attention to classroom management. This is especially true in secondary schools of Minna Educational Zone, Niger state. The managerial demands placed on classroom teachers by management are modest. Keep records and reports, request self-effort, provide equipment, as well as classroom management routines take a lot of time from the teacher. The management of classrooms is at the core of every educational system. In order to have a complete curriculum, it must be implemented and evolved in the classroom. The majority of the class time is spent with students seated. In order to avoid being treated as an afterthought in secondary school, the seating arrangement is critical. Clearly, there is a lack of control and order in the classroom management in our secondary schools. It is possible for a teacher to receive training in a variety of cultural contexts and then be confronted with students from all over the world with varying levels of social adjustment and social interaction ability.
The problem today include issues such as unequal opportunity in the classroom, improper upliftment of students' rights, an unsuitable school ruler, inconsistent classroom teachers, and a teacher's inability to adequately transmit instructions due to a lack of preparation. If one enters any of the secondary schools in Minna educational Zone during a lesson period, the situation appears to be the worst it has ever been. The majority of classes, if not all, may be unrecognized; these classrooms may be devoid of discipline or motivation for students. Because of this, there may be no teachers to keep an eye on and enforce rules against student behaviour in the classrooms.
Students' academic performance may suffer if their classroom management is subpar. Teachers must therefore learn how to better manage their classrooms in order to produce more. Many people are alarmed by the academic performance of students today. This could be due to student indiscipline in the classroom, such as tardiness, loud behaviour and so on. The need for classroom management includes teachers' efforts to monitor classroom activities, such as student behaviour, interaction and learning. Unfortunately, the poor academic performance of Nigerian students in public examinations has been a contentious issue for well-meaning Nigerians over the years. There are many factors, from teachers' poor classroom management to students' interest in learning. The study's goal is to find out what techniques secondary school teachers in Minna Educational Zone, Niger state need in order to manage their classroom effectively.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship teacher’s classroom management and academic performance of students in secondary schools of Minna Educational Zone of Niger State. The specific objectives of this study were to:
1. To find out classroom management strategies adopted by secondary school teachers in Minna educational Zone, Niger state
2. examination the relationship between classroom discipline and students academic performance in secondary schools in Minna educational Zone, Niger state
3. To identification the relationship between instructional supervision and student’s academic performance in Minna educational Zone, Niger state
4. To investigating the relationship between classroom organization and students academic performance in Minna educational Zone, Niger state
5. To establishment of the relationship between teaching methods on students academic performance in secondary schools in Minna educational Zone, Niger state
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the classroom management strategies adopted by secondary school teachers in Minna educational Zone?
2. What is the relationship between classroom discipline and student’s academic performances in secondary schools of Minna educational Zone, Niger state?
3. What is the relationship between instructional supervision and student’s academic performance in secondary schools of Minna educational Zone, Niger state?
4. How related is classroom organization with student’s academic performance in secondary schools of Minna educational Zone, Niger state?
5. How related is teaching methods with student’s academic performance in secondary schools of Minna educational Zone, Niger state?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: Classroom discipline has no relationship with student’s academic performance in secondary schools in Minna
H02: There is no significant relationship between instructional supervision and student’s academic performance in secondary schools of Minna educational Zone, Niger state
H03: There is no significant relationship between classroom organization and student’s academic performance in secondary schools of Minna educational Zone, Niger state
H04: There is no significant relationship between teaching methods and student’s academic performance in secondary schools of Minna educational Zone, Niger state
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will be significant as it will yield data that will help a number of individuals and educational stakeholders such as the Ministry of Education, researchers, teachers and parents to ascertain the extent to which effective classroom management affects students’ academic performance in secondary schools. The findings provided in this study will help teachers in accessing the effects of their classroom management on student’s academic performance in the school. Likewise, Ministry of Education and the curriculum planners will use the results of this study to guide them in imbibing classroom management skills in teachers so as to improve students’ academic performance. The study is equally significant to parents and teachers in that they will understand how disruptive behaviour can hamper students’ academic performance. It will create awareness among teachers and parent on the need to always establish a conducive learning environment for improved academic performance among children.
1.7 SCOPE AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to teacher’s classroom management and the student’s academic performance in Minna Educational Zone.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Academic Performance: These are test scores that students get after sitting for an exam
Classroom Discipline: These prescribe the standard of behaviour expected of the teachers and students in the classroom setting
Classroom Environment: Is the condition within the classroom that influences the learning situation.
Classroom Instruction: This refers to the methods or practices employed by the teacher in the classroom during the process of teaching and learning in order to achieve the intended goals.
Classrooms: A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, from preschools to universities, and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided, such as corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempts to provide a space where learning can take place uninterrupted by outside distractions.
Management: Management refers to the process of planning, organising, leading and controlling the resources (physical, human) required to achieve the goals/functions of teaching and learning (i.e., attending to the logistics of teaching).
Strategy: A strategy is any action or instruction or series of actions directed by the teacher to achieve a specific task – what the teachers does.
Classroom Management: Classroom management refers to the actions of the teacher to ensure that things get done. It has to do with rules, routines, structure – managing instruction, organizing learning materials and activities.
Comprehensive Classroom Management: Comprehensive classroom management refers to all the actions and interactions that occur in the classroom from the start to the finish of the lesson. Behaviour management is one aspect of this process.
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