1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
As is well known in Nigeria, during rainy season, and in order to minimize flooding, it is critical to have good drainage systems. This will ensure that water can flow freely during and following a strong downpour. Drainage systems are designed to efficiently carry waste water and sewage to disposal points, thereby maintaining the environment well-drained and waste-free. A good drainage system consists of the following components: drainage pipes, closed ditches with pipe drains, channels, and conduits. There is an urgent need for professionally managed drainage systems in many parts of Nigeria today to aid in the control of surface water runoff. However, in many sections of our country, effective maintenance of road drainage infrastructure is neglected. Nowadays, houses are constructed without adequate planning. Buildings are developed without adequate drainage systems, and occupants contribute to the problem as well. They can be found dropping their trash in gutters and on city streets, to name a few. This inappropriate trash disposal clogs gutters and prevents water from flowing freely, resulting in gutter overflow. Following a brief period of rainfall, it is not uncommon to observe flooded streets with floating litter. Such scenarios contribute to environmental degradation by creating extremely unsanitary environments.
Recent floods and their consequences are becoming increasingly common throughout the world, posing a threat to human settlements' sustainable growth (Aderogba, 2012). Nigeria is one of the most fortunate countries on the planet in terms of water resources. However, we must realize that flooding and water scarcity are environmental concerns in Nigeria, Africa, and the rest of the world that require intervention to maintain sustainability (Akolokwu, 2012).
Flooding is one of the most serious environmental concerns of the twentieth century. This is notably true in the majority of the world's wetlands (Bariweniet al., 2012). This is owing to the global rise in sea level caused by global warming, as well as the saturated condition of many sections of the world's wetlands, such as Nigeria. Numerous rivers experience periodic flooding; these rivers overflow due to factors such as excessive rainfall. The benefit of river overflows is that as flood waters surge into the banks, they dump sand, silt, and debris on the surrounding area. After the river water recedes and resumes its usual flow, the deposited elements contribute to the land becoming richer and more fruitful. The soil remains rich and productive as a result of the organic compounds and nutrients supplied by river water (Abowei and Sikoki, 2015).
While urbanization is a necessary component of modernisation, economic progress, and development, there is growing concern about the consequences of urbanization on human health, livelihoods, and the environment. Rapid urbanization and demographic changes have far-reaching implications for jobs, food production, water supply, shelter, and sanitation, particularly for the disposal of wastes (solid and liquid) generated by cities (United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, 1992). The urban sprawl is believed to be related to a country's developmental level, and others argue that in order for a country to progress, it requires a higher level of industrialization, as it is widely understood that urbanization cannot occur without rapid economic expansion (Tettey, 2015). Cities are the dominant factor in the organization of the human population on a global scale. Cities, as the world's most densely populated areas, continue to grow in population. This rise results in an increasing trend toward urbanization. Duru and Nnaji (2014) defined urbanization as the rise in the urban population relative to the rural population in a region. Urbanization is the result of social, economic, and political dynamics that result in the concentration and growth of large cities, changes in land use, and a shift in organizational and governance patterns from rural to metropolitan. Rapid urbanization has been a defining feature of the developing countries (Aderamo, 2014). As with other developing countries, Nigeria's growing urbanization is a 'two-edged sword' (Sule, 2010). While expanding human capital improved the country's economic status, the rise of urban centers exceeded the government's capacity to supply the growing demand for basic infrastructure and services. These show themselves through insufficient investment in roads, housing, water supply, energy, waste disposal methods, and suitable drainage systems, among other things (Sule, 2011; Aderamo, 2014; Jimoh, 2014). These issues have persisted and gotten worse as a result of non-compliance with planning ordinances (Sule, 2010). Appropriate drainage system management needs understanding of the system boundary, system resources, system interactions, and allowed limits, or thresholds, for each resource. Flooding has been cited as a significant factor impeding Nigeria's expanding population of urban residents from leaving poverty and impeding the United Nations' objective of significantly improving the lives of urban slum dwellers by 2020. (Action Aid, 2016).The problems of flood in Nigerian urban centers have been attributed to anthropogenic and natural factors. Olufemi (2014) remarked that study indicates that residents contribute significantly to their area's flood disasters and that their actions risk the environment that attracts many individuals for economic, social, and recreational opportunities. Eze (2014) concluded that no year goes in Calabar without flooding costing lives and property; on average, four lives are lost each year to flooding. Eze attributed the occurrence of floods on the growth of residential areas in Calabar and the city's inadequate drainage infrastructure. Offiong and Eni (2011) supported these claims by estimating material damage to be well over 115.76 million naira per year using both conventional questionnaires and secondary data. According to Ofiong and Eni, the primary causes of flooding in the city of Calabar are increasing demand for concrete surfaces on buildings, which increases surface runoff, and waste waters, which increases the quantity of water in streams, rivers, and drainage channels. Flooding in urban areas is not solely a result of excessive rainfall and catastrophic climate events; it is also a result of changes in the built environment. In the instance of Calabar, street flooding began as a result of some socioeconomic and anthropogenic actions aimed at rebranding the city as the State Capital. The inflow of residents from rural areas and neighboring states raised housing demand. Houses were rapidly constructed to fulfill the growing demand for housing. This affects the city's visual image, as structures were created in any manner and location (Sule, 2010), devolving into the "ugly face of Canaan city" (Iquot, 1982). Today, despite Calabar's reputation as one of the cleanest towns in Nigeria, the threat of floods has more than doubled. Therefore it is necessary that the government construct adequate drainage system to help curb flooding on the street of calabar municipality. Therefore the study centres on Impact of Drainage Channels on Street Flooding in Calabar Municipality.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Globally, the number of civilians dying or badly impacted by storms and floods has increased dramatically, as has the amount of economic damage caused; a disproportionately significant and growing share of these impacts occur in metropolitan areas in low- and middle-income countries. For example, between 1983 and 2010, floods in selected urban areas of Nigeria affected about three million people (Sule, 2010). While inadequate urban infrastructure construction and planning are likely to have had a role in much of this, even if they did not, it demonstrates urban populations' vulnerability to floods and storms whose frequency and intensity are anticipated to rise in most places. Calabar is one of the cities that is rapidly developing in terms of infrastructure, which entails the construction and concretization of the city's land area. As an end, flooding occurs, as do other environmental problems, such as roadway pavement failure (Giwa, 2011).
Global warming, climate change, ocean swell/surge, and severe rains are all commonly blamed for flood disasters. While flood threats are natural occurrences, the majority of damage and loss caused by floods are the result of urbanization without matching infrastructure reform (Elias, 2015). Flooding is Nigeria's most prevalent environmental danger (Elias, 2015). The severity of flood problems in Nigerian urban centers through time and space is closely tied to the rapid rate of urban expansion, particularly where sufficient run-off disposal systems are unavailable, as is the situation in the majority of Nigerian cities, and particularly in Calabar (Abaje and Giwa, 2014).
Lately calabar municipality is confronting considerable water logging throughout the rainy season (July to September) as result of a serious problem of poor drainage. Inadequate drainage difficulties became one of the most common sources of compliant from the people in the research region and this problem increasing worse in this year. Inadequate existing drains and their incorrect operation and maintenance generally cause severe floods which generates damages and concerns to the road pavement and road user. Additionally, diseases such as malaria and diarrhea are transmitted and cause issues for the community. This precarious scenario was exacerbated further since the natural drainage system that carries storm runoff from the areas to the river was not completely operational and the existing drains were clogged with massive amounts of rubbish, solid waste, silt, sand, and vegetation. Therefore the study centres on Impact of Drainage Channels on Street Flooding in Calabar Manicipality
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The study examines the Impact of Drainage Channels on Street Flooding in Calabar municipality. other specific objectives include:
1 To assesses the attitudes of the residents towards drainage system and flooding in calabar municipality.
2 To examine the impact of drainage channels on street flooding in calabar municipality
3 To examine the causes of street flooding in calabar
4 To examine the environmental impact of street flooding calabar municipality
5 To recommend solutions to street flooding through adequate and sustainable drainage system in calabar municipality.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1 What are the attitudes of the residents towards drainage system and flooding in calabar municipality?
2 What is the impact of drainage channels on street flooding in calabar municipality?
3 What are the causes of street flooding in calabar?
4 what is the environmental impact of street flooding calabar municipality?
5 What are the solutions to street flooding through adequate and sustainable drainage system in calabar municipality?
1.5 HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY
HO: there is no significant impact of drainage channels on street flooding in calabar municipality
H1: there is a significant impact of drainage channels on street flooding in calabar municipality
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of relevance to the government, the study tend to expose the realities of the environmental problems cause by flood in which the study tend to give a guide to the government in solving the problems faced by the residents of the area.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study would cover the Impact of Drainage Channels on Street Flooding in Calabar municipality
1.8 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The Researcher is likely to encounter certain problems in the course of conducting the research work, some of which may be
Financial Constraint: A good and successful research project will involve various activities and processes, it will require sufficient finances. However, due to the researcher's limited financial means, this research project may run into financial difficulties.
Time Constraint: The institution has set a time restriction for the research work; nevertheless, this time limit may not be sufficient for the research job to be completed, limiting the breadth of the research.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ENVIRONMENT: The natural environment or natural world encompasses all living and non-living things occurring naturally, meaning in this case not artificial. The term is most often applied to the Earth or some parts of Earth
FLOOD: A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry. In the sense of "flowing water", the word may also be applied to the inflow of the tide. Floods are an area of study of the discipline hydrology and are of significant concern in agriculture, civil engineering and public health.
DRAINAGE CHANNEL: a channel along which drained water flows away
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