Subsurface maps are perhaps the most important vehicle used to explore for undiscovered hydrocarbons and to develop proven hydrocarbon reserves. However, the subject of subsurface mapping is probably the least discussed of interpretation and the construction of structure/Isopach maps, yet most important aspect of petroleum exploration and development. As a field developed from its initial discovery, a large volume of well, seismic and production data are obtained. With these data, the accuracy of the subsurface interpretation is improved through time.
The most accurate interpretation for any specifics oil and gas field can be prepared only after the field has been extensively drilled and most of the hydrocarbons have been depleted. However accurate and reliable subsurface interpretations and maps are required throughout all exploration and development activities.
1.2 BASIC DEFINITIONS
1. Surface mapping: Is a way to visualize various geologic and hydrologic features in any dimension for a 1-D cross section to a 4-D production map.
2. Seismic data: is a method of exploration, geophysics that used the principles of seismology to estimate the properties of the earth subsurface from reflected seismic waves.
3. Seismic interpretation: Is the determination of the geological significance of seismic data.
4. Seismic stratigraphy: Is a techniques for interpreting stratigraphic information from seismic data.
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