INTRODUCTION1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Information and Communication Technology is perceived to be a force to be reckoned with in the 21st century because it has caused and continues to cause major changes in the way we live. In the electronic media, ICT has ignited and provoked radical and drastic changes that has affected and revolutionized the broadcast industry, most especially in immediacy and timeliness of news. Information and Communication Technology not only facilitate and enhance the creation, processing, sharing and dissemination of information in the broadcast industry but the immediacy and timeliness of news is of a high priority. Notwithstanding, with ICT, information spread, infinitely becomes faster and cheaper and readily available. Before now, there was a significant time lag separating the point when an event took place, and the time when the news may be publicly made available. But, ICT, has helped bridge the time lag between when an event took place and the time it is made available to the public. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a generic term used to express the convergence of telecommunications, information, broadcasting and communications. According to Rodriguez and Wilson (2000) ICT is seen as a set of activities which facilitate and enhance the processing, transmission and dissemination of information by electronic means. ESCAP (2000) also perceived ICT as techniques people use in order to share, distribute, and gather information for communicating through computers and computer networks. Promoting Information and Communication Technology as an integral part for enhancing timely news delivery in the broadcast industry was articulated by Samadar (1995) he submitted that ICT is a tool for facilitating the creation, storage, management and dissemination of information by electronic means. Meanwhile, Marcelle (2000) did not only see ICT as a complex entity but an application and services used for the production, distribution, processing, transformation of information with the aid of ICT tools. Nevertheless, Ogunsola and Aboyade (2005) are of the opinion that ICT came into being as a result of related technologies clearly stated by their functional usage in information access and communication is centralized through the Internet. As far as the digital age is concerned, the benefits accrue from ICT is enormous. One of the sectors that has benefited immensely from the use of ICT is the broadcast industry. With the use of ICT, news processing and news reporting is immediate, timely, and helps reduce the space constraints ‘the death of distance’. The use of ICT has revolutionized news processing, news packaging, and news reporting through the use of ICTs. There is no doubt that the employment of ICT in the broadcast industry is to enhance and improve news delivery as timely as possible. To buttress this, Adigwe (2010) cited Soforowa (2009) when he noted that ICT is seen as the integration and utilization of computer technologies for the purpose of disseminating information to a target destination or consumer without the constraint of time and space. Meanwhile, Master Control is the hub for all of the connections coming from various audio sources, multiple cameras, and the control boards and then pushing out the appropriate feeds to the public. From the Master Control room in the OSBC Center Production Suite, the engineers and directors expertly key into details and quickly make any adjustments necessary for a professional, quality end product. Master Control handles productions within the OSBC Center, but also control the broadcasting link between main station and outside broadcasting transmission.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM Going by global trends, which foretell an increase in the employment and the deployment of ICTs in news processing, in order to achieve better efficiency, accuracy, and speed up operations of news processing. Arguably the employment of ICTs in the newsroom and in news processing activities will increase cost, as money would have to be invested into acquiring both hardware and software. However, when Information and Communication Technology is discussed, it puts people out of jobs. The reverse is often the case. This technology takes over mechanical assignment and frees individuals for more intellectual productive work. Similarly, if this technology will achieve its overall objective, there is need for faster and more accurate means of solving manual operations of data processing and better storage devices for information and data as provided by ICTs, the complexities of modern technology have produced great mathematical, scientific, and engineering problem and hence, enhanced news processing and reporting. The Nigerian broadcast and print media like other facet of life and human endeavour in the country have embraced Information and Communication Technology to some extent. In this vein, this study tends to investigate the challenges facing media organization with a view to finding out the effect of the use of Information and Communication Technology in news processing and reporting. Also, this study will identify the constraints to the use of ICTs in Master Control Room of Broadcast Media.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY i. To examine whether ICT enhance the performance of MCR unit of broadcast media. ii. To know the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Master Control Room of Broadcast media. iii. To find out some constraints to the use of Information and Communication Technology in MCR of broadcasting station. iv. To examine ways by which can ICT enhance MCR effectiveness during broadcasting. v. To examine whether OSBC MCR Unit adopted the use of ICT in its daily broadcasting routines. vi. To know what will become of analog equipment when latest ICT devices take place. vii. To examine whether increase in technology has improved the performance of MCR unit of broadcasting station.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS i. To what extent has ICT enhance the performance of MCR unit of broadcast media? ii. What are the constraints to the use of Information and Communication Technology in MCR of broadcasting station. iii. What will become of analog equipment when latest ICT devices take place? iv. Has increase in technology improved the performance of MCR unit of broadcasting station? v. To what extent does OSBC acquainted with the use of latest ICT devices design for MCR? vi. To what extent will ICT reduce stress among MCR staff?
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY The finding of this project will be relevant to media house and other agencies in letting them know the importance and usefulness of internet to journalism. It will be useful to internet service providers on how they can serve the journalists better. Academics, who are studying the information and communication technology (ICT) will find the useful data in finding of the research work. Also, other stakeholder like regulatory bodies, government and professional bodies within the media will find the result interesting.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope of this work will examine the history of internet, how the internet came into existence. The work will therefore be limited to the role of computer and internet on Osun State Broadcasting Corporation (OSBC). This is so due to the fact that all mass media in Nigeria cannot be study in whole.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY Finance: Economically, the study witnesses financial challenges as it is very difficult to travel to the study area (OSBC) and browse for information and materials. Time: There is no enough time to carry out this study as the research time coincidence with the time of examination and other activities. Material: Due to the inability of the management and the public libraries to acquire enough books which are useful to the study, the study makes use of the available material, which is also relevant to the study. This study is limited only to journalist, in OSBC, Osogbo. However other journalist may find it useful.
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