1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Advances in information technology have transformed classroom teaching and learning by providing alternatives to traditional teaching methods such as the standard lecture format by giving teachers and students’ access to a wide range teaching and learning tools. According to Oak (2012), computer technology has had a deep impact on the education sector in that large amounts of data can be stored in them, they enable quick processing of data, can be used as teaching aids and teachers and students can use the internet to search for information. In accounting education, computers were used increasingly from the 1980s and 2014s. Information and communications technology (ICT) has long been heralded as a crucial element of both professional accountancy and accounting education (Elliot, 2011 as cited in Marriott et al., 2008) and it is a recognized part of the overall tools for supporting and enhancing teaching and learning as well as supporting and transforming pedagogy.The pedagogical benefits and the capacity of computers to assist in business education teaching were outlined by Spinelli (2010) and these include (a) emphasis on active learning, (b) enhancement of collaborative learning, (c) encouragement of greater student independence and (d) task-based teaching. In a nutshell, the ability of computers to bring realism and learner-centeredness to teaching supports contemporary constructivist views of teaching where emphasis is placed on authentic learning environments, realism and active student involvement in learning tasks. Many other potential benefits of the use of computers as an alternative mode of delivery in business education have also been reported. For instance, McInnes et al., (2013) concluded that students taught using computer-aided learning (CAL) approaches were initially more inclined to finding business studies as an interesting subject, and were more confident of their ability to work with computers than were those in the lecture-based classes. Another study carried out in by McDowall and Jackling (2006) on student perceptions of the usefulness of computer-assisted learning packages in learning accounting concepts found out that CAL programmes as part of the curriculum in business education have the potential to positively impact on academic performance, measured by academic grades in the unit of study. In a paper on the use of ICT in economics and business education, Ping (2014) argued that ICT facilitates the acquisition of important cognitive skills required for effective economic analysis and evaluation. It can thus be concluded that the potential benefits of using ICT in business subject’s classes are immense. On top of providing students with concrete experiences of business concepts and practices used in the real world context, ICT can also increase students’ self-confidence and competencies with technology. Computer technology tools that are available to business studies teachers take many forms, including computer-assisted instruction by drill and practice, multimedia simulations and electronic games and financial modelling (Boland et al., 2014). For instance the internet can be used to access book keeping simulations, games and puzzles, to carry out online research and for exploring endless resources such as business studies literature, academic journals, facts, figures, etc. Spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel can be used to analyse financial information, perform calculations and to create forecasting models. Since it is now widely accepted that the integration of modern technologies into the teaching-learning process has great potential as a tool to support learning, business studies teachers should strive to incorporate computer-aided pedagogy in their classroom practices since such technologies have the potential to improve and enhance student learning and understanding. Premuroso et al. (2011) argue that the use of new classroom technologies may create a more interactive and dynamic teaching-learning environment compared to the traditional lecture-style classroom. Although technology has been integrated into business education practices in business for years, accounting teachers have not fully capitalized on technology in the classroom (Teeter et al., 2007). Although available business studies education literature has offered relatively little insight into the extent to which accounting teachers incorporate computer technology in their classroom practices, there are many empirical studies which have shown that established teaching methods remain in place and available technology is often underused and poorly integrated into classroom practice. Many factors have been cited for the limited ICT adoption and integration in teaching and learning such as the unavailability and inaccessibility of ICT resources in schools teachers’ incompetence and lack of confidence in the use of ICT; teachers’ negative attitudes towards ICT and their beliefs that the use of ICT in teaching did not benefit their students’ learning (Korte and Husing, 2007). In light of this it can be inferred that much of the real potential of computer-assisted learning remains untapped because teachers may not be using the technology effectively.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Students not achieving to their highest potential is a problem in most schools in Nigeria. What can teachers do to ensure that all children they taught achieved to their fullest potential and developed into successful learners? Many schools are integrating CAI into their curriculum in order to improve all student achievement (Patterson, 2014). More research is needed to validate the spending of funds toward implementing CAI as a possible way of increasing student achievement. In the past, failure in business studies has prevented many children from furthering their education and thus made them ended up in not being skilled enough to be trained as professional. Most of the time children get frustrated when they are unable to progress in solving a problem in science subjects and developed apathy and hatred for the subject which has adverse effect on their academic progress. It has been observed that many students at JSS level have lost hopes about ever understanding or passing business studies and this is mostly responsible for the increase in social vices such as examination malpractices, cultism amongst others. The problem of teaching and learning business studies in Nigeria secondary Schools did not just surface overnight. It is a result of cumulative problems starting with our government, schools, curriculum, parents, students, teachers and society. The generality of Nigerians, even the educated ones are not computer literate owing to the fact that they are not exposed to computer education at their elementary level of their education. This has contributed to a poor state of information technology in Nigeria. With the introduction of computer-Assisted Instruction in secondary schools, a lot of improvement will be achieved to adequately prepare students and teachers to address the problems and make students develop interest in business studies.
1.3. AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of computer aided instructions in improving teaching and learning business studies. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the status of computer education in secondary schools in Nigeria.
2. To examine the ways the quality of instruction produced through CAI leads to more positive attitude towards learning of business studies than the conventional instructional techniques.
3. To examine the effect of computer aided instructions on improving teaching and learning of business studies in Nigerian secondary schools.
4. To examine the educational benefits computer aided instructions in the teaching and learning of Business Studies.
5. To examine the relationship between computer aided instructions and business studies students achievement in junior secondary schools.
6. To examine the challenges faced by the teachers in using computer aided instructions to teach Business studies.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the status of computer education in secondary schools in Nigeria?
2. In what ways do the quality of instruction produced through CAI leads to more positive attitude towards learning of business studies than the conventional instructional techniques?
3. What are the effects of computer aided instructions on improving teaching and learning of business studies in Nigerian secondary schools?
4. What are the educational benefits of computer aided instructions in the teaching and learning of Business Studies?
5. What is the relationship between computer aided instructions and business studies students achievement in junior secondary schools?
6. What are the challenges faced by the teachers in using computer aided instructions to teach Business studies?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H0: Computer aided instructions has no significant effect in enhancing effective teaching and learning process of business studies.
H1:Computer aided instructions has a significant effect in enhancing effective teaching and learning process of business studies.
H0:There is no significant relationship between computer aided instructions and computer aided instructions and business studies students’ achievement in junior secondary schools
H1:There is a significant relationship between computer aided instructions and computer aided instructions and business studies students’ achievement in junior secondary schools.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings would be significant to student teachers, parents, school administrators, ministry of education as well as the at large. The result of this research would help the students in advancement of their knowledge as well as increase their awareness and understanding of the subject. The result would also help teachers to understand the effects of certain processes and at the same time increase their understanding at the appropriate skills, method and specific teaching behaviour. Similarly, the result of this research would help in increasing and understanding the awareness of parents as to the importance of business studies in the overall development of the economy of the nation in general, as well as know the remedies to their children's failure in business studies examination. The outcome of this research would also make the school administrators, ministry of education and the government to bring about better and improved practice in business studies remedy the problems of teaching and learning business studies in secondary schools. However, this study would serve as insight to general public particularly for further study by researchers in this field.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the effect of computer aided instructions in improving teaching and learning business studies,a case study of selected secondary schools in Enugu Metropolis.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Business Studies: A subject offered under the 8-4-4 Nigerian education system and covers commerce, accounting, economics, entrepreneurship and office management.
Computer: An electronic device that accepts user input referred to as data, processes it under specials instructions called programs in order to produce a desired output called information.
Cooperative learning strategies: A plan of action in gaining of knowledge and skills that is characterised by willingness of the learner and teacher to comply in the learning processes.
Information and Communication Technologies: diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information. Examples are computers, the Internet, broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and telephony
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