1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Domestic violence is a major problem and one of the most pervasive human rights challenges and issues especially for the most parts of African societies where issues relating to partners violence are largely treated as hidden phenomena globally (Izugbara et al., 2016). Domestic violence which is also known as spousal abuse, domestic abuse, family violence, battering, intimate partner violence (IPV), is defined as a pattern of abusive behaviours by one partner against another in an intimate relationship such as marriage, family, dating or cohabitation. Domestic violence as defined has many forms, including assault or physical aggression (hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, slapping, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse; emotional abuse; controlling or domineering; intimidation; stalking; passive/covert abuse (e.g., neglect); and economic deprivation (Siemieniuk; Krentz; Gish & Gill, 2010). Alcohol consumption and mental illness can be co-morbid with abuse and present additional challenges in eliminating domestic violence. Definition, awareness, perception and documentation of domestic violence differ widely from place to place, and have evolved from era to era. Domestic violence remains so prevalent – and underreported – because of the prevailing culture of silence around the issue in Nigeria. Domestic violence is one of the most common forms of gender-related violence generally, and various studies estimate that between 10 and 35% of women experience domestic violence at some point in their lives. Domestic violence is a social problem that, although well recognised, is still associated with uncertainty and taboos. Many women experience psychological and/or physical violence in their intimate relationships or immediate social environment, which becomes a serious health problem for them. The Issue of insecurity has been addressed in different forums by the academicians and scholars as well as political and policy makers. Thus, the notion of human insecurity has strongly influenced the academic and political debate. The idea of human security is precisely based on this perception of interrelatedness (Wethers, Heaven&Vollnhalls, 2015). Although, the phenomenon is multi dimension as presented by United Nations Agencies and other related bodies. The UNDP Report introduced seven So‐called dimensions of human security: economic, food, health, environmental, personal, community and political security (UNDP Report, 2015).The state of insecurity (Nigeria) has brought about so many negative effects, including millions of internally displaced persons and this has led to political, domestic and economic disruptions which in turn lead to slow economic growth and development (Onifade Comfort, Imhonopi David & Urim Ugochukwu Moses, 2013). Also there are remote and immediate factors responsible for Dilemma of insecurity in Nigeria, including Unemployment, corruption, Poverty, weak of judiciary system, leadership crisis, imbalance, ethno-religious conflicts and illiteracy. As Osewe argued the growing insecurity around the country’s boarders and other related issues as smuggling is as result of poor attention place on the human security aspect (Osewe, 2010). Insecurity generally refers to a state of being subjected to fear, threat, danger, molestation, intimidation, harassment etc in all aspect. The level of insecurity in Nigeria is multifaceted as such one cannot accurately categories the patterns of Insecurity. There are various forms of insecurity in different parts of the country. In the South-South, armed robbers have taken over, while in the North, cross-border bandits operate with the ease. However in the South-South there are rampant cases of kidnapping (Ifeanyi, 2012). Paramilitaries and vigilantes, youth gangs and transnational drug cartels, pirates and terrorists are among the actors who, both in conflict and non-conflict contexts, in different continents and with different socio-economic, cultural and political profiles, become agents of violence in their societies Leon and Tagar (2016). But unconventional understanding of violence mainly domestic violence doesn’t mean the absence of security, war, conflict and other types of instability forms. Thus, the different types of violence are occur and very common in our daily life in contemporary societies across global, mainly Gender-Based and Domestic Violence. According to Rivera, The consequences of domestic violence extend far beyond the direct deaths and injuries, and it has profound detrimental effects on development (Rivera, 2016). Generally, Violence take many forms such as Gender-Based violence, Domestic violence and Ethno/Tribal- religious violence. Accordingly, contemporary Nigerian societies are witnessing most, if not all forms of domestic violence. Because the structural factors contributing and sustaining domestic violence are existing in today Nigerian context. Among others insecurity, poverty, imbalance, illiteracy, terrorism, war and conflicts and domestic deprivation are constitute the main sources of domestic violence. This paper will dwell on domestic violence and insecurity in selected communities in Obio-Akpor and Port-Harcourt L.G.A. accordingly; contemporary Nigerian societies are witnessing most, if not all forms of domestic violence. Because the structural factors contributing and sustaining domestic violence are existing in today Nigerian context. Among others insecurity, poverty, imbalance, illiteracy, terrorism, war and conflicts and domestic deprivation are constitute the main sources of domestic violence.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
Gender-based or domestic violence is, linked to gendered power relations and constructions of masculinities, Greig (2013). According to Roders (2013) Gender-based violence includes intimate-partner violence and child abuse inside the home as well as sexual abuse in the public arena. Domestic violence is a widespread societal problem with consequences reaching far beyond the Family Domestic violence goes by many names: wife abuse, marital assault, woman battery, spouse abuse, wife beating, conjugal violence, intimate violence, battering, partner abuse, and so forth. Omoyibo and Akpomera (2012) avowed that security in Nigeria is synonymous to an individual who put iron bars across his or her windows which eventually prevents the individual from escaping a fire outbreak. The contemporary Nigerian societies and communities across country are clearly showing the presence and practiced of different concepts and forms of insecurity. From various conflict areas such as Northeast and Delta Niger where The Boko Haram insurgency activities taken place, and conflict against oil companies respectively, issues of poverty and imbalance and other structural challenges facing Nigerian leaders and intellectuals today. Therefore, insecurity dilemma is still needs more targeting and addressing by concern bodies to solve fundamental problems related to it and lets nation feel secure. It is against this backdrop that the study, domestic violence and insecurity in selected communities in Obio-Akpor and Port Harcourt L.G.A is examined.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to examine the domestic violence and insecurity in Nigeria. Other specific objectives of the study include;
1. To examine the forms and drivers of domestic violence in the Obio- Akpor and Port Harcourt L.G.As
2. To examine causes and consequences of insecurity and domestic violence in River state.
3. To examine the effects of domestic violence and insecurity on women in Rivers state
4. To examine the relationship between domestic violence and insecurity in Rivers state.
5. To examine the management of domestic violence and insecurity in Rivers state.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the forms and drivers of domestic violence in the Obio- Akpor and Port Harcourt L.G.As?
2. What are the causes and consequences of insecurity and domestic violence in Rivers state?
3. What are the effects of domestic violence and insecurity on women of Rivers state?
4. What is the relationship between domestic violence and insecurity in Rivers state?
5. How is the management of domestic violence and insecurity in Rivers state?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant effect of domestic violence and insecurity on women of Rivers state.
H1: There is a significant effect of domestic violence and insecurity on women of Rivers state.
H0: There is no significant relationship between domestic violence and insecurity in Rivers state.
H1: There is a significant relationship between domestic violence and insecurity in Rivers state
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has some inherent potential benefits; it will help the Nigerian government to identify and understand domestic violence and insecurity problems in Nigeria. Research findings like this will whip up public momentum and provide the basis to hold policy owners to their policy promises. It is hoped that the research findings will add to existing literature on domestic violence and insecurity. The outcome of this study will be a relevant academic material for policy makers, students of research and civil society organizations. Moreover, the study will add to existing knowledge and the same time serve as a future reference material that will guide other researches who may venture into the same area of study.
1.7. SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to domestic violence and insecurity in selected communities in Obio-Akpor and Port Harcourt L.G.A of River state
1.8. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview)
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9. DEFINITION OF TERMS
Domestic Violence: Domestic violence is a pattern of assaultive and coercive behaviours, including physical, sexual, and psychological attacks, as well as economic coercion, that adults or adolescents use against their intimate partners.
Insecurity: Insecurity is a feeling of uncertainty, a lack of confidence or anxiety about oneself. Beland (2015) defined insecurity as “the state of fear or anxiety stemming from a concrete or alleged lack of protection.” Some of the common descriptors of insecurity include: want of safety; danger; hazard; uncertainty; want of confidence; doubtful; inadequately guarded or protected; lacking stability; troubled; lack of protection; and unsafe, to mention a few.
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