1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Over recent years, efforts have been made by many states tostep up against human trafficking. However, counter-trafficking continues to suffer from shortcomings. There is still lack of knowledge on trafficking, lack of political will, operational capacity, and on what counter-strategies work best. Human trafficking is a major issue that still exists both in developed and developing countries globally including Nigeria. The main purpose of this project is to safeguard the rights of women and minors below the age of 18 years, used for the purpose of sex exploitation, forced labor, child labor and criminal activities and also to look at the inefficiencies of security agencies in combating trafficking in Nigeria. International trafficking in Nigeria is mainly concentrated in Edo state where families escape extreme poverty by sending a family member to Italy and other outside countries. Traffickers often offer women and minors to travel to Europe and outside countries with promises of good jobs, with an agreement of incur debt which takes 1-3 years to pay. Usually women and minors are trafficked from developing countries to developed countries, here they are not provided with employment and education, where by forcing them to search for better means of living and opportunities around the world. The danger associated with human smuggling gives traffickers an upper hand to exploit the situation and make thousands of dollars; people pass through hash, tough conditions and intense measure during the process.Nigeria is a centre of trafficking of human beings, especially women and children. It is an origin, transit and destination country for trafficked children and serves predominantly as an origin country for trafficked women. Child victims of trafficking for domestic service are recruited from the Nigerian State of Akwa Ibom, Children victims of trafficking originating in Nigeria were all under the age of 16 (the majority was between 6 and 10 years of age). Trafficked girls are used for domestic service or street trading as well as commercial sexual exploitation while boys are generally forced to work on plantations or in commercial farming, construction, quarries and mines, or engage in petty crimes and the drug trade. As a consequence, human trafficking continues to thrive. By focusing on the role of the security sector, this research offers ways of making progress against a pressing contemporary problem that undermines the security of states, societies, and individuals. This introduction first highlights the contribution of the security sector to counter-trafficking. It then examines the scope and nature of trafficking and discusses different perspectives on the problem. The trafficking of persons for the purpose of domestic servitude, prostitution and other forms of exploitative labour is a widespread phenomenon globally and in Nigeria in particular (Nwogu, 2005). Within Africa, Nigeria is the largest single source of trafficked persons of Europe and Asia. Also, the trafficking in persons report of the United States of America department July (2008) identified Nigeria as a source, transit and destination country for trafficked persons. It further mentioned that the victims of human trafficking are men, women and children. In order to curb the menace of human trafficking in Nigeria the trafficking of persons (prohibition) law enforcement and administration act was signed into law in the year 2012. The laws contains for reaching provisions on trafficking and establishes the National Agency for the prohibition of traffic in persons and other related matters (NAPTIP). NAPTIP has the responsibility to enforce laws against trafficking in persons and to take charge and coordinate the rehabilitation and counselling of trafficked persons and for related matter. Apparently, researchers have made some concerted efforts to find solutions to human trafficking in Nigeria, but the problem still persists. However, it is also pertinent to state that some solutions proffered could not see the light of the day because of the lack of holistic approach to tackle the problem. Some of the limitations include, placing too much emphasis on prostitution, limiting human trafficking to a particular sex (i.e female), to a few states such as Edo, Delta, Kano and Kwara.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The profitability of human trafficking is an estimated multi-billion dollar industry. The Department of State has identified that not only international or transnational criminal organizations, but also terrorist and insurgent groups worldwide, such as the Islamic State and Boko Haram, capitalize on trafficking. The International Labor Organization estimates 21 million victims of human trafficking worldwide. For a number of reasons, the estimated number of human trafficking victims in the United States is unclear, but estimates range as low as 14,5006 to as high as 300,000 victims, with about 50,000 people being trafficked into the United States from other countries. The United States has adopted a number of policies to help combat human trafficking. The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (“The Protocol”) is a United Nations “international agreement to address the crime of trafficking in persons, especially women and children, on a transnational level.” The Protocol establishes common language, definitions, and directives in the response and handling of trafficking in persons, and includes methods to prevent trafficking, punish traffickers, and protect victims. In adopting the anti-trafficking treaty, the United States enacted the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) in 2000, which reflected the initiatives of the Protocol and its concepts of prevention, punishment, and protection. Unfortunately, many states lack adequate legislation or fail to meet the standards of the Protocol and TVPA. Lack of security agencies also contributed to a high standard of human trafficking in Nigeria. If human trafficking were viewed as an established, but criminalized, industry, stressors on the economic model of supply and demand would affect it. The supply, or “product,” of humans is heavily managed and provided by suppliers, or traffickers, to meet the demand, or employers and consumers of labour and sex trafficking. This economic model view of human trafficking as a market allows the application of economic approaches to deterring criminal behaviour. As scholars have recommended an economic approach to combating human trafficking, local and state level officials must assess the feasibility of implementing the proposals suggested to determine if applying an economic model could reduce the prevalence of human trafficking.
1.3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major aim of the study is to evaluate the challenges of developing security awareness program in Nigeria and its implications on safety. Other specific objectives are as follows;
1. To examine the potency of the Nigerian legal instruments available to curb human trafficking.
2. To investigate the role of security agencies in ensuring compliance with the international legal framework to combat trafficking in persons.
3. To examine the impact of security agencies on combating human trafficking in Nigeria.
4. To examine the determinant factors and effects of human trafficking in Nigeria.
5. To recommend possible solutions to the problem of human trafficking in Nigeria.
1.4. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What is the potency of the Nigerian legal instruments available to curb human trafficking?
2. What are the roles of security agencies in ensuring compliance with the international legal framework to combat trafficking in persons?
3. What are the impacts of security agencies on combating human trafficking in Nigeria?
4. What are the determinant factors and effects of human trafficking in Nigeria?
5. What are the recommended possible solutions to the problem of human trafficking in Nigeria?
1.5. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
H0: There is no significant impact of security agencies in combating human trafficking in Nigeria
H1: There is a significant impact of security agencies in combating human trafficking in Nigeria
1.6. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is geared towards producing an empirical, critical but objective work on the problem of human trafficking in Nigeria and the effort being made by the security agencies to prevent, manage and eradicate human trafficking in Nigeria. It is expected therefore, that this research would be of benefit to the generality of the public.The study would be of immense importance to the Nigerian populace and government at all levels as it would unveil the need for creatingmore security agencies to help combat human trafficking. The study would equally be beneficial to students, researchers and scholars who are interested in developing a further research on the subject matter.
1.7. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is restricted to human trafficking and inefficiency of security agencies in Nigeria, 2000-2015 using Lagos state as the case study.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Security: The state of being free from danger, threat or a state of being safe, as well as the measures taken to be safe or protected.
Awareness: Having knowledge that something exists, or understanding of a situation at the present time based on information or experience.
Safety: Relative freedom from danger, risk, threat of harm, injury, loss to personnel and property, whether caused deliberately or by accident.
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