1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY
The south-south region of Nigeria is located between the latitudes of 40 and 60 north of the Equator and 40 and 80 east of the Greenwich Meridian. It is coterminous with all of Nigeria's oil-producing states, including Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Edo, Imo, Rivers, Bayelsa, Delta, Abia, and Ondo. (Adagba, Ugwu and Eme, 2012). It encompasses one of the world's largest wetlands, over 60% of Africa's greatest mangrove forests, and one of the world's most widespread mangrove forests, stretching over 20,000 km2 of swamp area on the country's litoral margins(Eyinla and Ukpo, 2016). It includes the most extensive fresh water swamp forest in West and Central Africa, as well as a complicated network of creeks, rivers, streams, swamps, braided streams, and Oxbow lakes, as well as a stretch of flat and productive land mass. In this scenic region, ethnic nations such as the Ijaw, Itsekiri, Urhobo, Ikwere, Andoni Efik, Ibibio, Kalabari, and Okrika, as well as elements of the Yoruba and Igbo, coexist(Adedeji, and Eziyi 2010). The Ijaw appears to be the largest of these. Nigeria's proven oil reserves of about 35 billion barrels are also located in this region (Eyinla and Ukpo, 2016), besides an even larger deposit of natural gas. The region also accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's Gross Domestic Product and serves as the country's economic jugular.
Internal security is defined as the act of maintaining peace within a sovereign state's or other self-governing territory's borders. This is generally accomplished through preserving national law and defending against threats to internal security. Without security, there can be no development. The nontraditional definition of security places a premium on human safety. according to Fayeye (2011) The maturity of institutions and processes that can engender and guarantee political space and sufficient conditions for the achievement of personal, group, and national goals, among other things, is referred to as security. As a result, security encompasses far more than the absence of war.
Security is the condition or quality of being secure; protection against any sort of crime to safeguard life, assets, and operations via the employment of various methods and equipment; freedom from fear and danger; assurance; certainty; and crime defense..
The goal of security management is to avoid issues or bad phenomena (security risks and threats), prevent crisis management, and prevent causing difficulties, which is comparable to risk management. According to isike (2015) In the Nigerian Niger Delta, there are two key sources of violence from a security standpoint. The native population groups have become increasingly restive and un inclined as a result of the federal government's historical neglect of the region's development aspirations while simultaneously extracting the vast majority of Nigeria's foreign exchange revenues – by centralizing the ownership and control of oil resources in such a way that it impairs the region's interests and competitiveness – and anti-social activities. According to ikelgebe (2015) With little in the way of a coherent, visionary, or long-term economic and social policy, and reliant on oil revenues from the Niger Delta, the alarmed federal government has responded (in recent years) to rising tensions and violent protests by suppressing dissent with force rather than addressing the people's more prickly and long-term demands. In many respects, this is at the heart of the complicated and escalating political wrangling and instability that has not only engulfed the Niger Delta region, but now threatens to fracture the Nigerian state's putative peace, security, and integrity, as well as that of the entire south-south region(Aina, and Orbih,2010).
According to isike (2015) The Niger Delta is currently a powder keg of competing and sometimes irreconcilable interests. On the one hand, the Nigerian government, its agencies, and supporters, and on the other, the people and their agencies (ethnic/communal militias) have based their stances and activities on a well-articulated need to protect their diverse interests. The Niger Delta problem is defined and summarized as a conflict of two opposing but mutually reinforcing notions of security, which shows itself in occasional violent battles between federal government troops and numerous ethnic militias and armed gangs. The state and international oil corporations hold a state-centric view, whereas the deprived and displaced people of the Niger Delta hold a human-centric view, which they express through their militia forces ikelgebe (2015).
According to ikelgebe (2015) The question is, whose security is the state supposed to safeguard, and what threats are they aimed at? Is it also true that these security organizations are not well-equipped to manage security in the region? Security management entails not only using guns to fight crime, but also using discourse when necessary.
The article centers on security management in the south-south region of Nigeria .An adequate and effective security outfit will lead to the control of crisis and violence in the Niger delta region therefore the government must play a significant role in the management of theses crises by the effectively managing the security apparatus in other to achieve peace and stability in Nigeria not particularly in the south-south region of the country.
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
Nigeria's numerous security difficulties are evidence of the country's inefficient security management, which can be traced back to a lengthy period of neglect of critical aspects in security planning and management. Nigeria's former leaders and political elite have been accused of failing to prioritize vital security aspects, which has resulted in major risks to the country's national security. (Adeola and Oluyemi, 2012). The security crisis in Nigeria, particularly in the south-south region, can be traced to a lack of proper financing and equipment for security departments, as well as politicization of security concerns based on partisan, tribal, and religious factors. The average Nigerian citizen's lack of security knowledge, combined with security personnel's lack of training, exacerbates the country's security issues. (Ani, 2017). According to this study, the south-south area will continue to face severe security difficulties that endanger its security and unity unless these important security features are given priority attention and implemented quickly. Other flaws in the application of critical security elements in Nigerian security include: I inadequacies in manpower recruitment and training of security forces and law enforcement agencies; (ii) government handling of security issues is not timely and prompt; and (iii) citizens are not involved in state security management (iv) a low level of security awareness (v) citizens' reluctance to provide security information to law enforcement agencies (vi) the government's slow threat response to security advice on threat assessment and neutralization (vii) a lack of effective coordination and harnessing of human, material, and technical resources (viii) security agencies' poor funding and security personnel's low motivation(ix) ineffective security networking between security and law enforcement agencies (x) insufficient self-control and discipline among security employees (xi) insufficient secrecy and a porous security network (xii) non-compliance with document security classifications and violations of oaths of secrecy Acts in Nigerian security and government departments; and (xiii) neglect and abandonment of retired security personnel who could still be useful to the country but are frequently abandoned by their former department after retirement, forcing some of them to engage in criminal activities. Therefore this study centers on security management in the south -south region
Can't find what you are looking for? Hire A Researchproject Writer To Work On Your Topic or Call 0806-703-7559.
Proceed to Hire a Writer »