1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The differences in academic performance of students under the same conditions of teaching, have overtime given the researcher a cause for concern. To identify the cause of high or low academic performances have been the aim whereas the researcher interaction with students of high academic performance shows that they came from well-to-do homes, live comfortable life and are exposed to conducive homes. Interaction with students of low academic performance shows that most of them came from poor or broken homes with little or no means of livelihood; hence they need to fend for themselves. This exposes them to psychological and emotional instability. According to Anukam (1986), Waboso (2009), Esu (2011), Okpechi (2014) and the international society for the prevention of child labour, abuse and neglect (ISPCAN) which led to the formation of the African Network for the prevention and protection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) frown at child labour and abuse. All these groups condemn child labour and abuse. A child is said to be abused if he or she is denied basic rights like any other, citizen. In essence he is subjected to a lot of maltreatment and forced to live under the most un-conducive environment. Child abuse takes many forms, for example, child labour, deprivation, sexual abuse, psychological and physical child abuse, children used in rituals, battering, child soldering, child prostitution, Human trafficking, child abandonment, early marriage to mention but a few Abudu, (1984); Dyorough, (1986), Waboso (2009), Okpechi, (2014). It is common in the society to see school age children as baby-sitters, house boy/maid servant services, housekeeping etc. the researcher kept on imagining why these children are not in school. Again, if at all they attend school do they perform well? As a teacher, the researcher had on several times observed some students in class sleeping while teaching is going on. When asked why they sleep at that time, their answers most of the time is always that they do labour before coming to school and so they are so weak i.e. (child labour). The researcher also observed that most students do not perform well academically, and therefore started to ponder whether their poor performances would be attributed to their involvement in child labour (Domestic work). For a child to perform academically well, he/she needs a stable mind and a motivating environment. These conditions often elude some children particularly those from low-income homes child abuse can have a drastic consequences on the future life of the child, it is dehumanizing. It engenders low self esteem, promotes inferiority complex, belittles the individual, as well as degradation of one's personality (The punch. August 14, 2014).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
It has been alleged that there are cases of child labour, or the working child, which affects student’s academic performance in junior secondary schools in Mushin L.G.A, Lagos state. In addition the failure of students in secondary school to complete their junior school education was due to their inability to combine school attendance with income generation activities to finance their education. Poverty and lack of employment or partial employment and illiteracy among parents/guardians have given birth to majority of child labour problems. Furthermore, Drusilla and Alan (2011) stated that child labour has been an acceptable way throughout history that the fact of young children. Working and the difficult conditions under which children work occasionally become more evident. In the mid 19th and 20th centuries child labour became more visible because children were drawn into an industrial setting. Drusilla and Alan (2011) explained that children are engaged in child labour because of new technology, household dynamics, culture, market, and political failure which determine the labour force participation rate and educational attainment of young children. Evidences are enormous that children who are involved in child labour are generally at risk for a variety developmental and psychological outcome due to excessive exposure to hazard. They also function poorly intellectually (Ebigbo 1986). Therefore, the problem of this study stands as a question. How does child labour affects the academic performance of students who engage in it in the secondary schools in Mushin, L.G.A, Lagos state.
1.3AIMS OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this study is to examine the effect of child labour and its implication on student’s performance in junior secondary schools. Other general objectives of the study are:
1. To examine the various forms of child labour in Nigeria.
2. To examine whether there is difference between the academic performance of laboured children and non-laboured children.
3. To examine the effects or consequences of child labour on academic performance of the Students.
4. To investigate if child labour affects the psychological and emotional state of the child’s active participation in class.
5. To examine the relationship between child labour and academic performance among Junior Secondary School students.
6. To examine practical measures to be adopted to alleviate the incidence of child labour.
1. What are the various forms of child labour in Nigeria?
2. Is there any difference between the academic performance of laboured children and non-laboured children?
3. What are the effects or consequences of child labour on academic performance of the Students?
4. Does child labour affect the psychological and emotional state of the child’s active participation in class?
5. What is the relationship between child labour and academic performance among Junior Secondary School students?
6. What are the practical measures to be adopted to alleviate the incidence of child labour?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
H01: There is no significant effect or consequences of child labour on academic performance of the Students.
H02: There is no significant relationship between child labour and academic performance among Junior Secondary School students.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The results of the findings would be of significant to the children, parents, community, teachers, Ministry of Education, educators and curriculum planners in the following ways: It would enlighten children on the importance of school through regular school attendance, which would make them appreciate the value of their academic performance. The results of the findings would make the parents and community to develop positive interest towards their children’s educational pursuits in primary school level. The findings would be of importance to the parents and community at large through the Parent Teachers Association (PTA) on the effect of child labour in student’s attendance and academic performance of the children with possible solutions. The result of the findings would encourage Ministry of Education and curriculum planners to develop strategies that will reduce or eradicate child labour, by introducing assessable schools, reduce or introduce free school fees and provide food supplements. The result of the findings would encourage curriculum planners to introduce appropriate curricular to suite each season of the year. The findings would also make educators to appreciate pupils through awards of certificate of regular attendance to students who deserved it.
1.7SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is based on the effect of child labour and its implication on student’s performance in junior secondary schools, case study of 5 selected secondary schools in Mushin L.G.A, Lagos state.
1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Child: Is a human being male or female between nine years (9) of age and fourteen (14) years of age, who is in the developmental stage of childhood and is ready to start his/her fundamental basic education.
Labour: Apply to the range of activities which children do like domestic work, to work in the household, farms, hawking or begging that deprived them to their rights to attend School and acquire their educational background
Child Labour: Is any work that the child of between ages nine (9) and fourteen (14) is engaged in, that have effect on the child’s right to attend school or acquire the required educational standard. Also for the purpose of this study, the concept of “child labour” will be defined as children between the ages of 9 and 14 years of age who are involved in economic activities for cash, kind or non-wage incentives.
Academic Performance: Is the student’s ability to study and remember fact, being able to communicate knowledge verbally or written down on a paper. The academic performance of a primary school entitles scores from continuous assessment and the examination of pupils for the academic session.
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