It is critical for the investigator to choose the best approach for the study at the outset of any form of research. Methodology is described as "the methodologies and overall approach to empirical study of a particular subject" . It is suggested that different approaches to a specific research subject can be taken, and the investigator must give his or her own set of approaches careful consideration.
While time and money are undoubtedly crucial considerations when determining how to approach a given research challenge, the methodologies employed should ultimately be determined by the research's topic. A skilled researcher would weigh all accessible possibilities before choosing which approaches to apply in light of being the most beneficial for the current study.Be aware that the applicability of the research methodology employed is frequently a determining factor in the impact of research. This emphasises even more how crucial it is for the researcher to choose the effective methodology if the end result is to be worthwhile and significant from a research standpoint.
In essence, a questionnaire is an organised method for gathering first-hand information. Usually, there are a number of structured questionnaires to which the replies must respond. a questionnaire in a more comprehensive setting (namely as a technique in which various individual's are asked to answer the same set of questions).Care must be used when developing a questionnaire; while being able to write in plain English will be helpful, it will not be enough. A well-designed questionnaire will encourage participants to supply accurate and complete information; as a result, it should yield trustworthy and pertinent data in return.
There three main question-types the researcher might use while creating the actual questionnaire, notably
open ended questionnaires:They have the benefit of providing a variety of replies that serve to capture the essence of people's reactions, while not influencing the answer to the question by limiting the range of viable answers. On the negative side, responses are frequently challenging to assess and frequently lack consistency and depth.
Dichotomous Questionnaires:They are employed when there are two opposing possible answers to a question, such as "Yes" and "No." They are immediately similar to responses from other respondents, making them easier to reply and less work to evaluate the results;
Multichotomous questionnaires:Similar to a multiple-choice test, these questions have a variety of potential responses. They once more have a tendency to be simpler on the responder and the questionnaire translator later on.
STRENGTHS OF A QUESTIONNAIRE
Using questionnaires, the researcher can collect a lot of data for not very much money. The target group can choose to respond whenever it is most suitable for them to a survey that is sent to them via postal mail. Email serves as an additional delivery method and can further cut costs.
Questionnaires of the two primary forms, explanatory and descriptive, enable the interviewer to gather information to either explain multiple variables or to explain cause-and-effect correlations between various variables, accordingly.
LIMITATIONS OF A QUESTIONNAIRE
The frequently poor response rate of questionnaires, particularly those distributed via postal mail or email, is one of their main downsides. For postal surveys, response rates may be as low as 20%. The quality of the data collected will inevitably be impacted by improperly or illegibly filled out surveys, as well as missing responses, which could further reduce the number of questions that are actually usable.
When questionnaires are not eniugh its backed up with interviews, One of the key advantages of interviews, is the researcher's ability to follow up on ideas and explain issues, which is not available with questionnaires. To get the most accurate and useful data possible, consideration must be paid to every component of the questionnaire, from design to choosing the appropriate target audience.
The design of surveys themselves has a number of drawbacks as well. Fixed-choice questions typically presuppose an unstated general understanding of the subject under investigation, forcing the respondent to provide information that he or she may not know, may differ from based on subjective understanding, or may be affected by exogenous differences in education, culture, age, or social status. There is no way to fix this in a questionnaire, therefore the results may be at best slightly skewed or downright false.